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5
Personality
and
Values
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 1
Describe Personality, the Way It Is
Measured, and the Factors that ShapeIt
Defining Personality
➢ The sum total of ways in which an individual
reacts to and interacts with others
➢ Personality is a dynamic concept describing
the growth and development of a person’s
whole psychological system
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-4
LO 1
Describe Personality, the Way It Is
Measured, and the Factors that ShapeIt
Why is it important to know about personality?
Managers need to know how to measure personality:
➢Personality tests are useful in hiring decisions
and help managers forecast who is best for a job
“FIT” is important to company and the applicant
➢The most common means of measuring personality
is through self-report surveys (Shortfall—Accuracy)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-5
LO 1
Describe Personality, the Way It Is
Measured, and the Factors that ShapeIt
Cultural Impact on Personality
Individualistic vs Collectivism
Self-enhancement vs Self-diminishment
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-6
LO 1
Describe Personality, the Way It Is
Measured, and the Factors that ShapeIt
Personality Determinants
Is personality the result of heredity or environment?
Heredity refers to those factors that were
determined at conception. The heredity
approach argues that the ultimate explanation
of an individual’s personality is the molecular
structure of the genes, located in the
chromosomes
Biological | Physiological | Psychological
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-7
LO 1
Describe Personality, the Way It Is
Measured, and the Factors that ShapeIt
➢What are good descriptors of personality? Traditional descriptors of
personality traits:
•➢
•➢
•➢
Asshole
Bullshit—Artist
Jer
k
Shithead
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-8
LO 1
Describe Personality, the Way It Is
Measured, and the Factors that ShapeIt
Early research tried to identify and label enduring
personality characteristics
➢ Shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy,
ambitious, loyal, and timid. These are
personality traits
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-9
Myers-Briggs Framework
LO 2
➢The most widely used personality framework is
the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
➢ Individuals are classified as:
➢ Extroverted or Introverted (E or I)
➢ Sensing or Intuitive (S or N)
➢ Thinking or Feeling (T or F)
➢ Perceiving or Judging (P or J)

What’s Prof. John Burnett’s Myers-Briggs Type?
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-10
LO 2
MBTI Model
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-11
LO 2
Strengths and Weakness of the
MBTI and Big Five Model
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
➢ INTJs are visionaries
(Stubborn, Drive, Skeptical, Critical)
➢ ENFJ are leaders / teachers
(relational, motivational, idealistic)
➢ ESTJs are organizers
(organizers, realistic, logical, decisive)
➢ ENTPs are conceptualizers
(innovative, individualistic, versatile)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-12
LO 2
CEO and Personality Traits
Personality traits of 313 CEO candidates of private equity firms
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-13
LO 2
The Big Five Model
The Big Five Model
(High – Low Scoring)
➢ Extraversion
➢ Agreeableness
➢ Conscientiousness
➢ Emotional stability
➢ Openness to experience
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-14
LO 2
Strengths and Weakness of the MBTI
and Big Five Model
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-15
LO 2
Strengths and Weakness of the MBTI
and Big Five Model
The Dark Triad
Machiavellianism: the degree to which an individual is
pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes
that ends can justify means
Narcissism: the tendency to be arrogant, have a
grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive
admiration, and have a sense of entitlement
Psychopathy: the tendency for a lack of concern for
others and a lack of guilt or remorse when their actions
cause harm
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-16
LO 2
Other Dark Traits
An emerging framework to study dark
side traits:
➢ First, antisocial people are:
▪ Indifferent
▪ Callous toward others
➢ Second, borderline people have:
▪ low self-esteem
▪ high uncertainty
▪ unpredictable
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-17
LO 2
Other Dark Traits
➢ Third, schizotypal individuals are:
▪ Eccentric but creative
▪ Disorganized
➢ Fourth, obsessive—compulsive people are:
▪ Perfectionists and stubborn
▪ High attention to details
▪ Strong work ethic
➢ Fifth, avoidant individuals: (little interaction)
▪ Feel inadequate and hate criticism
▪ Hate criticism
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-18
LO 2
Individual Class Exercise
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-19
LO 3
CSE, Self-Monitoring and Proactive
Personality
Other Personality Traits Relevant to OB:
➢ Core Self-Evaluation:
bottom line conclusions individuals have about their
capabilities, competence, and worth as a person
➢ Self-Monitoring:
measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her
behavior to external, situational factors
➢ Proactive Personality:
people who identify opportunities, show initiative,
take action, and persevere until meaningful change
occurs
.
5-20
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc
LO 4
The Situation, Personality,
and Behavior
Situation strength theory: indicates that the
way personality translates into behavior
depends on the strength of the situation
The degree to which norms, cues, or
standards dictate appropriate behavior
➢ Clarity
➢ Consistency
➢ Constraints
➢ Consequences
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-21
LO 4
Trait Activation Theory (TAT)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-22
LO 5
Contrast Terminal and
Instrumental Values
Values: basic convictions about what is right,
good, or desirable
Value system: ranks values in terms of intensity
The Importance and Organization of Values:
➢Lay the foundation for understanding of
attitudes and motivation
➢ Influence attitudes and behaviors
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-23
LO 5
Contrast Terminal and
Instrumental Values
Terminal vs. Instrumental Values:
➢ Terminal values: desirable end-states of
existence (goals to achieve)
➢ Instrumental values: preferred modes of
behavior or means of achieving terminal
values (method or path to achieve goals)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-24
LO 5
Contrast Terminal and
Instrumental Values
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-25
LO 6
Person-Job Fit vs.
Person-Organization Fit
Person-Organization Fit:
(John Holland’s Theory)
➢ People high on extraversion fit well with
aggressive and team-oriented cultures
➢ People high on agreeableness match up
better with a supportive organizational
climate than one focused on aggressiveness
➢ People high on openness to experience fit
better in organizations that emphasize
innovation rather than standardization
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-26
LO 6
Person-Job Fit vs.
Person-Organization Fit
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-27
LO 6
Person-Job Fit vs.
Person-Organization Fit
Other Dimensions of Fit
Although person-job fit and person-organization fit are
considered the most salient dimensions for workplace
outcomes, other avenues of fit are worth examining
➢ Person-group fit
➢ Person-supervisor fit
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-28
LO 7
Hofstede’s Five Value
Dimensions and GLOBE
Hofstede’s Framework
➢ Power distance
➢ Individualism vs Collectivism
➢ Masculinity vs Femininity
➢ Uncertainty Avoidance
➢ Long-term vs Short-term Orientation
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
5-29
7
Motivation
Concepts
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
LO 1
Three Key Elements of Motivation
➢What is motivation? And how would you
describe it?
Motivation is the processes that account for an
individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence
of effort toward attaining a goal
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-4
LO 1
Three Key Elements of Motivation
The three key elements of motivation are:
1. Intensity: concerned with how hard a
person tries (e.g., effort)
2. Direction: the orientation that benefits the
organization (e.g., focus)
3. Persistence: a measure of how long a
person can maintain his/her effort
(e.g., endurance)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-5
LO 2
Early Theories of Motivation
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-6
LO 2
Early Theories of Motivation
➢Maslow’s need theory has received wide
recognition, particularly among practicing
managers
▪ It is intuitively logical and easy to understand
and some research has validated it
▪ However, most research invalidates the
theory when its applied to diverse cultures
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-7
LO 2
Early Theories of Motivation
➢ Motivation Hygiene Theory
(also called)
➢ Two-Factor Theory (By Frederick Herzberg)
Intrinsic Factors to Job Satisfaction
Extrinsic Factors with Job Dissatisfaction
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-8
LO 1
Early Theories of Motivation
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-9
LO 2
Early Theories of Motivation
➢ Hygiene Factors:
▪ Policy
▪ Salary
▪ Supervision
▪ Work conditions
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-10
LO 2
Early Theories of Motivation
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-11
LO 2
Early Theories of Motivation
➢ Criticisms of Herzberg’s theory:
▪ Limited because it relies on self-reports
▪ Reliability of methodology is questioned
▪ No overall measure of satisfaction
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-12
LO 2
Early Theories of Motivation
The theory focuses on three needs:
➢ Need for achievement (nAch): drive to
excel, to achieve in relation to a set of
standards, to strive to succeed
➢ Need for power (nPow): need to make
others behave in a way that they would
not have behaved otherwise
➢ Need for affiliation (nAfl): desire for
friendly and close interpersonal
relationships
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-13
LO 2
Early Theories of Motivation
➢ McClelland’s Theory of Needs
➢ Example: Project choices at work
➢ Project A – $500 Bonus (Easy)
➢ Project B – $1,000 Bonus (80% chance)
➢ Project C – $2,000 Bonus (50% chance)
➢ Project D – $4,000 Bonus (Very few succeed)
➢ Project E – $8,000 Bonus (Almost impossible)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-14
LO 3
Self-Determination Theory
➢ Self-Determination Theory
▪ People prefer to feel they have control over their
actions
▪ People paid for work feel less like they want to do it
and more like they have to it
➢ Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Extrinsic rewards for behavior—that were
previously intrinsic—decreases overall level of
motivation
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-16
LO 3
Self-Determination Theory
➢ What does self-determination theory suggest for
providing rewards?
Caution in the use (and overuse) of extrinsic rewards is
prudent, and setting intrinsic goals are the best
motivation
Self-concordance: considers how strongly people’s
reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their
interests and core values (e.g., happier employees)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-17
LO 3
Self-Determination Theory
What does all of this mean?
▪ For individuals:
Choose your job for reasons other than
extrinsic rewards
▪ For organizations:
Provide intrinsic as well as extrinsic
incentives
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-18
LO 3
Goal-Setting Theory

When extrinsic rewards are used as payoffs for
performance, employees feel they are doing a good job

Eliminating extrinsic rewards can also shift an
individual’s perception of why he or she works on a
task from an external to an internal explanation
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-19
LO 3
Goal-Setting Theory
➢ Goal-Setting Theory
Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and
how much effort is needed
➢ Evidence suggests:
➢ Specific goals increase performance
➢ Difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher
performance than do easy goals
➢ Feedback leads to higher performance than does
non-feedback
(FEEDFORWARD TOO)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-20
LO 3
Goal-Setting Theory
Three other factors influencing the goalsperformance relationship:
➢ Goal commitment
(Internal Locus of Control)
➢ Task characteristics
❑ Simple
❑ Well-learned
❑ Independent (group if interdependent)
➢ National culture
❑ Collectivistic (moderate vs. difficult)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-21
LO 3
Goal-Setting Theory
People differ in the way they regulate their thoughts
and behaviors
➢ Those with a promotion focus strive for
advancement and accomplishment and approach
conditions that move them closer toward desired
goal
➢ Those with a prevention focus strive to fulfill duties
and obligations and avoid conditions that pull them
away from desired goals
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-22
LO 3
Goal-Setting Theory
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-23
LO 3
Goal-Setting Theory
Goal Setting and Ethics
➢ The relationship between goal setting and ethics
is quite complex: if we emphasize the attainment
of goals, what is the cost?
➢ We may forgo mastering tasks and adopt
avoidance techniques so we don’t look bad, both
of which can incline us toward unethical
choices
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-24
LO 4
Self-Efficacy Theory
Albert Bandura
➢Self-efficacy theory is an individual’s
belief that he or she is capable of
performing a task




Enactive mastery (experience—confidence)
Vicarious modeling (observation)
Verbal persuasion (coaching)
Arousal (pumped-up, energized)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-25
LO 4
Self-Efficacy Theory
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-26
LO 4
Self-Efficacy Theory
Implications of self-efficacy theory
➢ The best way for a manager to use verbal
persuasion is through the Pygmalion effect
A form of self-fulfilling prophecy –
believing in something can make it true
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-27
LO 4
Reinforcement Theory
B. F. Skinner
➢ Reinforcement theory: behavior is a function
of its consequences
▪ Reinforcement conditions behavior
▪ Behavior is environmentally caused
➢Operant conditioning theory: people learn to
behave to get something they want or to avoid
something they don’t want
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-28
LO 4
Reinforcement Theory
Social-learning theory: we can learn through both
observation and direct experience
Models are central, and four processes determine their
influence on an individual:
➢ Attentional processes
➢ Retention processes
➢ Motor reproduction processes (Observe ☺)
➢ Reinforcement processes (Incentives ☺)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-29
LO 4
Equity Theory
Equity Theory: compares job inputs/outcomes to others
then responds to eliminate any inequities
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-30
LO 4
Equity Theory
When employees perceive an inequity, they can
be predicted to make one of six choices:






Change their inputs (underpaid/overpaid)
Change their outcomes (variable—by the ?)
Distort perceptions of self (work effort)
Distort perceptions of others
Choose a different referent (benchmark)
Leave the field (OUTTA Here!!!)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-31
LO 4
Equity Theory
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-32
LO 4
Expectancy Theory
Victor Vroom
Expectancy theory: a tendency to act in a certain way
depends on an expectation that the act will be followed
by a given outcome
Three relationships:
▪ Effort-performance relationship (exert???)
▪ Performance-reward relationship (level???)
▪ Rewards-personal goals relationship (satisfy???)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-33
LO 4
Expectancy Theory
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
7-34
NEXT WEEK:

Review and study Chapters 6 and 7

Complete homework assignments

Read Chapter 8: Motivation

Look Ahead:
• Jeopardy (In class next week)
• Midterm (via NYU Classes ONLY—check
Syllabus)
• S.W.O.T. Analysis (2nd Group Project Deliverable)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
2-37
https://mediashare.pearsoncmg.com/node/1072061
38
3
Attitudes
and Job
Satisfaction
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
Contrast the Three Components of an
Attitude
What are Attitudes?
Evaluative statements—either favorable or unfavorable—
about objects, people, or events
Attitudes reflect how we feel about something
Feel ➔ Think
Action or Inaction
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
3-4
Contrast the Three Components of an
Attitude
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
3-5
Relationship Between Attitudes
and Behavior
➢ The attitudes that people hold determine what they do:
▪ Leon Festinger: cases of attitude following behavior
illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonance
▪ Cognitive dissonance is any incompatibility an
individual might perceive between two or more
attitudes or between behavior and attitudes
Research has generally concluded that people seek
consistency among their attitudes and between their
attitudes and their behavior
STRESS
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
3-6
Relationship Between Attitudes and
Behavior
MitigatingVariables
Importance
Influence
Rewards
• The attitude-behavior
relationship is likely to
be much stronger if an
attitude refers to
something with which we
have direct personal
experience
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
3-7
Compare the Major Job Attitudes
➢ Job Satisfaction
A positive feeling about the job resulting from an
evaluation of its characteristics
➢ Job Involvement
Degree of psychological identification with the job
where perceived performance is important to
self-worth
➢ Psychological Empowerment
Belief in the degree of influence over one’s job,
competence, job meaningfulness, and
autonomy (e.g., discretion and delegation)
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
3-8
Compare the Major Job Attitudes
➢ Organizational Commitment
➢ Identifying with a particular organization and
its goals and wishing to maintain
membership in the organization
➢ Employees who are committed will be less
likely to engage in work withdrawal even if
they are dissatisfied, because they have a
sense of organizational loyalty
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
3-9
Compare the Major Job Attitudes
➢ Perceived Organizational Support (POS):
Degree to which employees believe the
organization values their contribution and cares
about their well-being
➢ Higher when rewards are fair, employees are
involved in decision making, and supervisors are
seen as supportive
➢ POS is important in countries where power
distance is lower
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
3-10
Compare the Major Job Attitudes
➢ Employee Engagement
▪ The degree of involvement with, satisfaction
with, and enthusiasm for the job
▪ Engaged employees are passionate about
their work and company
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc.
3-11
GROUP EXERCISE
1. Think about two to three jobs that you held
during your lifetime
2. Create a list of the jobs on a sheet of paper
3. List what you really liked about the jobs, and
what you disliked about the jobs
4. Select someone in your group to write the job
titles on the whiteboard and list 3 to 5 common
things that were really liked and disliked about
each job
.
Copyright © 2017 Pearson Education, Inc
3-12
Compare the Major Job Attitudes
Are these job attitudes …
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