1. Identify the three main types of computer software that were discussed in your unit lesson. Within the three main categories, give examples of each and a brief explanation of each. Each explanation/description category must be answered with at least 100 words. You must cite your sources within your answers.2. Write a 150-word essay on the importance of operating systems (OSs). Locate at least one article in the CSU Online Library and one article from an Internet search. You may also use the required readings to support your essay. You must cite your sources within your essay.3. Identify three mobile OSs and three personal computer OSs. Explain advantages and disadvantages of each one. Describe each OS. The total wording for each OS description/advantages/disadvantages should be no less than 100 words. You must cite your sources.
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1. Identify the three main types of computer software that were discussed in your unit lesson.
Within the three main categories, give examples of each and a brief explanation of each. Each
explanation/description category must be answered with at least 100 words. You must cite your
sources within your answers.
MAIN TYPES OF
COMPUTER
SOFTWARE
EXAMPLES
EXPLANATION/DESCRIPTION
Word Processors
Application Software
OS/Microsoft
Windows
System Software
HTML
Developmental Tools
2. Write a 150-word essay on the importance of operating systems (OSs). Locate at least one
article in the CSU Online Library and one article from an Internet search. You may also use the
required readings to support your essay. You must cite your sources within your essay.
3. Identify three mobile OSs and three personal computer OSs. Explain advantages and
disadvantages of each one. Describe each OS. The total wording for each OS
description/advantages/disadvantages should be no less than 100 words. You must cite your
sources.
OPERATING
SYSTEMS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
DESCRIPTION
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
References
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CLOUD COMPUTING INFLUENCE ON OPERATING SYSTEM
Science International. 27.1 (Feb. 28, 2015):
Copyright: COPYRIGHT 2015 Knowledge Bylanes
http://www.sci-int.com/
Full Text:
Byline: Zain Tahir Muhammad Aslam and Mishall Fatima
ABSTRACT: In last decade internet usage has increased tremendously. Internet subsequently the Web
has changed the way how people think about using computers in their daily life. This enormous shift
towards the Web is made possible by many internet enable electronic gadgets which provide access
virtually from anywhere to the Web. In this paper we have studied different Web operating systems in
terms of designs architecture and functionalities. A positive association has been found how cloud
computing affects the traditional desktop operating system and shifting it to the cloud Web and mobile.
To consolidate our arguments we have presented case studies of different cloud operating systems
like Windows Azure Chrome OS Eye OS and you OS. However cloud based operating system would
be main focus in future with involvement of intelligent agents.
Keywords: Cloud computing Mobile computing Traditional operating system Web OS 1.
INTRODUCTION
Web is the most emerging platform of this era. It’s a chain of interlinked hypertext documents placed
on Internet which may contains various information in the form of text images videos and various other
resources. Web and Internet are two different terms that are often mistakenly used together. Internet is
a global network of interconnected computers that uses TCP/IP protocol suite and Web is actually
something that is available by internet just like e- mail and many other services. Fast speed emerging
Web technologies have provided a way to access distinct architectures and helped a lot to migrate
towards Web-based hypermedia systems [11].
Operating systems (OS) are experiencing great changes with rapid technology advancements. Initially
operating systems were design to meet basic requirement of users but as time passes user
requirements have changed and are not limited to local system base programs or services. In order to
fulfill user needs operating system has evolved to meet the latest challenges.
Formerly OS was developed to use on single system for single user but with development of latest
technologies it adopts the flexibility of performing multiple tasks for different people at a time and
hence OS expanded itself in a way that it can be accessed by people over the internet subsequently
through Web to either share data or to execute any program. This is where concept of Web OS came
up.
A Web operating system (WOS) is an interface for users that provide access to different programs and
applications that resides completely or partially on the Web. It may looks like the same conventional
operating system but it doesn’t interact directly with hardware of system. Users must have traditional
OS on their computers in order to have access to cloud or Web based operating system. In Web OS
services are provided to users through an Internet connection. Web OS can be accessed using a
software or Web browser it can provide access to practically any kind of program that could be run on
computer’s desktop. Applications that can be accessed using the Web OS are Emails calendars
games chat messengers; file management video audio and other kind of programs as well. Web OS
are currently available and in development phase. The most popular approaches used to develop Web
operating system rely on Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) and flash technologies.
In last decade internet usage has increased from 9.7% to 34.3% of total world population [9]. Internet
subsequently the Web has revolutionized the way information is transferred and has change the
traditional ways of communication and information sharing. Internet has become one of the primary
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sources of information for millions of user at home work or at any place. This huge shift towards Web is
due to various ranges of internet- enabled devices which provide access to Web. Usage of Web and
internet has increased to such a level that people are now depending on it a lot. This is because
people now access and use Web everywhere on mobile devices notebook PCs E-pads etc. and it has
become an inseparable part of their lives [10].
With the advancements in internet technologies the concept of cloud computing is emerging very fast.
With cloud computing user can access data and applications via Web browser by sitting at any place
with any device over the internet. Cloud computing can help in collaboration of devices and minimizing
the dependency on platform compatibility. The massive moves towards Cloud computing and Webenabled mobile devices have influenced the traditional operating systems in many important ways.
Operating systems are no more dependent on hardware; concept of virtualization has mitigated the
limitations of hardware requirement for operating systems. The technologies like Hyper V VMware and
Virtual PC has made possible to deploy multiple instances of different operating systems concurrently
at one platform. These advancements at operating system level are done in order to accommodate the
ongoing needs of Internet and essentially to satisfy the Web user needs
According to [7] with latest innovations and developments in mobile computing cloud computing and
virtualization it is essential that OS must be developed in such a way that the devices on a network can
be utilized by same OS frame work and common set of applications can be maintained as well.
Cloud computing is rising as a medium for information storage and sharing on a large scale. In this era
of technology most users just do not have the desktop computers only but also many electronic
gadgets like Notebook Mobile phones I pad’s PDA’s and these all gadgets are linked with internet.
Though there are a lot of advancements in area of internet and gadget technology but yet there is no
standard framework to access and save data from other gadgets. We believe that the increasing cloud
popularity will help in making it the only platform for applications and in future Web based operating
systems with the help of cloud services may provide that standard framework to all gadgets [5].
It is expected that most of the functionality that is provided by conventional operating system will be
taken over by Web browser for normal computer users internet browser will be complete OS and most
of the services and applications required by user will be available on cloud [1]. The growing use of
internet subsequently the Web has dramatically changed the development of an application it is
expected that in future most of the applications will developed for Web rather than traditional platform
or architecture such as applications specific to OS hardware or processor. Unlike traditional
applications that used to be installed on system Web based applications live on the cloud as a service
and can be used at any part of the world without the need of installing them first.
In this paper we discuss in detail in how operating system behavior changes from traditional towards
Web based computing cloud and mobile computing and how it affects the architectural changes in
operating systems with point in focus Web has positively influence on operating system.
The structure of rest of the paper is as follows. Section no 2 reviews key literature in detail focusing
especially on the influence of Web on OS and cloud computing. In Section 3 we discuss the pros and
cons of Web OS and presented the solution for challenges faced by traditional OS and Web OS. To
justify our idea we present the case study on different popular Web OS in Section no 4. Furthermore
statistical analysis is shown in Section 5. Finally Section 6 concludes the paper along with future
directions.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The increase in use of internet subsequently the Web has changed the traditional view of operating
system. K. G. Srinivas et al in their paper mentioned that with excessive use of internet and with
advancements in technology operating system also changes [1]. The key concept is to move the
operating system to Web without dependency of platform and device so that the users can access it
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easily from anywhere giving rise to concept of Web OS [2]. One driving force to move towards Web OS
is the use of Web applications massively like remote access of file systems emails Web based
processing and communication means. According to George Lawton Web OS is much like traditional
operating system as Web applications are accessed by Web browsers which uses it as an interface
[2]. It can be remotely accessed via browser through URL based file system from any location unlike
traditional operating systems that can be access from only one machine.
Web OS is platform independent operating system which removes compatibility issues of Web
applications and traditional desktop operating systems. The same operating system runs on windows
Mac or Linux with internet and Web access and does not require any hardware drivers. Web OS has
variations in the same architecture. The SGD uses 3-tier architecture in which one is application server
that is used to host virtual machines responsible for running programs and pushing them to
presentation server that manages client connection. The thin client is responsible for running
application and then response back to application server. Similarly eyeOS uses 2-tier architecture
combining application and presentation server. Nabil Abdennadher Gilbert Gabin and Peter Krofp
mentions that Web OS provides users to request service without knowing about which kind of request
they are requesting and fulfilled user’s desired goals showing that these are open access [4].
Open Access and versatility make the Web OS an interactive environment for Meta computing
Lucid OS is an advance form of Web OS. According to Kapil Garge et al Lucid OS provides basic
services of operating system for distributed scalable and dynamic Web applications [3]. Lucid OS is
based on Web application browser and server. In this OS Web browser is the primary interface for user
views content managing services and data on local machine. Web server is necessary part as it is
responsible for displaying data and content on browser from local server. This Web server is locally
installed on Web applications and is highly optimized for its services. Lucid OS is based on PHP XML
and MySql technologies.
As time passes the usage of Web applications rises and it increases the demand for data and
applications to be stored on cloud. According K. G. Srinivasa et al MeghaOS allows the users to save
and access data on clouds [1]. As MeghaOS allows the user access through Web so it also has high
security risks involved. Due to which an authentication is required via digital signatures that was not
part of traditional desktop operating systems. MeghaOS is totally based on HTML CSS JavaScript and
XMLHTTP. In future MeghaOS also involves local cache feature of HTML5 in it. David Geer writes in
his paper that the three new approaches virtualization cloud computing and application development
changes the importance of traditional operating system [8]. The effect of virtualization on operating
system is that now user is not dependent of a single operating system rather than it they can use
multiple operating systems according to their choice.
The effect of cloud computing on operating system is that cloud base users access the applications via
browser. They have no need of operating system just have to run the browser. Memory disc space and
other resources are shared by cloud system. Virtualization technology allows a PC or a server to run
multiple operating system or multiple sessions of single operating system at the same time. This allows
users to put number of applications running even those who are on different operating system. That’s
why this approach is used in business to optimize the use of hardware. This enables us to use many
operating systems on a single machine.
With advancement in operating systems from start Reed reported in his survey The Future of the OS
for Internet Applications” that with passage of time and with new emerging Web technologies it
becomes the need of time to move OS towards Web by allowing remote access of applications [6]. The
operating system becomes more scalable reliable and platform independent due to fulfilling needs of
Web. Their performance improved as one can see different improved versions of operating system for
desktop as well as for Web.
3. Web OS ARCHITECTURE
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Web OS has features much more than traditional operating system having capabilities of traditional
operating system and web based functionalities. Traditional operating system capabilities includes file
systems file management productivity and communication applications. Web OS features include;
functioning across platforms from any device with only internet access. Web OS comprises of
traditional operating system with some variations in it. The SGD uses 3-tier architecture for security
and virtualization. The application server hosts virtual machines that run programs and push them to
presentation server which manages client connection. The thin client runs the application and passes
user input back to application server. As web OS moved to browser and across platforms it eliminated
hardware dependency and compatibility issues between applications as one can remotely access
them from anywhere [2]. There is no doubt that Web OS removes hardware and platform dependency
But there is still a need of traditional operating system in order to access web OS on the cloud [12]. A
simplified basic architecture of Web OS is shown in Figure 1.
3.1 Advantages of WEB OS
Following are some of the advantages of Web OS.
Web operating system can run on any device or computer that has an internet connection. This helps
those people who don’t have any personal computer or device and they can work from offices colleges
and internet cafes.
In Web OS user can work from any available computer need of dependency on one physical computer
is ended.
Web OS can run on different computers so this results in collaboration among multiple work stations.
In Web OS users store and manage their files services and applications on provider’s web servers
rather than on their local machines this prevents loss of data and theft of data at user end as data is
being maintained at server level with much better security and storage capacity. Web OS users don’t
have to take backup of their data as it is being done at web server.
In Web OS most of the heavy processing is done at server end this results in user long term computer
and device cost reduction.
One of the most important features of Web OS is that it operates across platform this eliminates the
compatibility issues of operating system and applications and same Web OS can be run on Mac
Windows or Linux machine.
In Web OS application is developed once only and can be used on all Web OS unlike traditional
operating system where application is developed for each Operating system separately. Also in web
OS application is once deployed at server end and then distributed to users accordingly.
Data and applications in Web OS are store on server at one central location which can be monitored
and secured from one point this helps in better malware protection.
In web based operating system multiple users can work on one file at the same time rather than
organizing several copies of the same file and then incorporating them in the end.
Web Operating system booting time is very less it boots up in just few seconds and it also supports
resume enable.
3.2 Disadvantages
Though Web OS has many advantages over traditional operating system yet there are also some
flaws in Web OS which are as follows.
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Web OS face network related problems like bandwidth limitations and latency constraints that
traditional operating system do not have.
As Web OS operates on web browser that runs on host machine operating system so this requires
extra overhead like power demands and additional processing of keyboard mouse audio and video
devices.
Incase web user caches the data locally they are working with than web browser will have access to
data and security can be compromised as if hacker access the browser.
Generally there is very limited number of applications developed for web based operating systems as
compared to traditional.
Varieties of applications of Web OS do not contain features that users like in traditional operating
systems.
Web based OS does not offer as much functionality as traditional OS like access to system drivers.
Many people don’t want to put their data in hands of third party as they don’t trust them and won’t like
to use servers for their personal data.
As user must be online to access the Web OS so one must have a good internet connection all the
time to work on web based operating system.
3.3 Solution for Challenges faced by WEB OS Web based operating system can be based on
distributed set of servers instead of single server this can provide redundancy to cope with any
problem that arises in the server and also helps greatly in moving applications closer to users which
results in reducing latency problems. Beside this more and more applications should be developed for
Web operating system so that users can feel comfortable with Web OS. Developers should be
encouraged to develop applications for Web OS and this could be achieved by making Web OS
platform open source. Moreover in order to adopt Web OS at wide level high performance network
connectivity should be maintained so that users don’t feel any problem to connect Web servers.
Moreover providers of Web OS should make their users feel more secure and they should develop the
trust of users by making strong policies regarding c …
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