1. Briefly discuss what is the field of pharmacogenomics and how it could contribute to the development of better drugs for the treatment of diseases. (around 500‐700 words) including references.2. For the 2 drugs assigned to me which are; Acrivastine (Semprex), Ketotifen.you will follow the instructions which i will upload here to write about the two drugs.thanks and the deadline is on 9th march.
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BIOL-371: Drug Action and Toxicology
Spring Semester, 2019
Instructor: Dr. Catherine Demoliou
Assignment (worth 5% of the final mark)
1. Briefly discuss what is the field of pharmacogenomics and how it could contribute to the
development of better drugs for the treatment of diseases. (around 500‐700 words)
2. For the 2 drugs assigned to you in the list below:
i) using the literature available compare and contrast the mode of action of these 2 drugs (how
do they work (type of receptors, 2nd messenger, biological action like inhibit/stimulate
growth, proliferation, secretion, relaxation, constriction etc), where do they work (i.e. type
of tissue/cells, ), and refer to any biomarkers (i.e increase/decrease blood pressure, heart
rate, urine output etc), that may indicate the effect of these drugs.
ii) using the literature available compare and contrast the pharmacokinetic parameters of these
2 drugs i.e.
1. liberation and bioavailability
iii) using the literature available compare and contrast the main side effects profiles of these
drugs and how these are correlated to the pharmacological properties of the drug.
iv) discuss the legal status of these drugs in EU legislation (is it allowed to be sold, prescribed?).
v) discuss any toxicological properties of these drugs to be considered .
vi) explain how an overdose of these drugs may be treated and the mode of action of any
Please adhere strictly to the guidelines below:
• Use Times New Roman format and 1.5 line spacing. Limit your write‐up of part 2 to 1500
words, excluding references, tables, figures and legends.
Excessive text will be penalized.
• Use figures and tables whenever possible. The use of tables may reduce the amount of
paragraph text required, as well as make your work clearer. Every figure or table must
be labeled as Figure 1, Figure 2 …. or Table 1, Table 2, etc. and must have an appropriate
• Do not copy information from the literature blindly. Try to paraphrase and comment on it
whenever you feel it is necessary. For example, you may find that there are discrepancies in
reported data from different sources. Take this as an opportunity for you to comment on if the
differences have any impact on the drug action.
• Your data should be mainly sourced from articles in scientific journals and official online
scientific repositories, not from standard student textbooks or web sites for the common public.
• List all references used, using the Harvard format described below, and enclose copies of
abstracts of all articles/abstracts used in your hard copy submission.
Format for references
Use the Harvard referencing system for citing and listing your references
a) Within‐text citations should be listed as follows:
• Single‐author articles: (Smith, 2008)
• two‐author articles: (Smith and Baker, 2008)
• three or more author articles: (Smith et al., 2008)
b) References listed at the end of your write‐up should be presented in alphabetical
order according to the surname of each first author; chronological order for the same first authors
or according to second author if the first author and year are the same:
University of Nicosia e‐resources library http://www.library.unic.ac.cy/searchtools/e-resources/eresources.html
Free full text medical journals online http://www.freemedicaljournals.com/
Free full text medical books online http://freebooks4doctors.com/
PubMed database http://www.pubmed.gov/
Harvard referencing short guide
NLM Medline Plus and Health Information http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/
European Medicines Agency http://www.emea.europa.eu/
US Food and Drug Administration http://www.fda.gov/
British Pharmacological Society http://www.bps.ac.uk/
PS. Any papers you can not find on the internet you can request from the Library to get it for
Acrivastine (Semprex), Ketotifen
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