Please answer in a complete sentence the questions/statements below for chapters 10. When answering, please number your answers.Chapter 10Provide a brief history of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).Briefly describe ASD characteristics and all levels (e.g., low-high).Briefly describe the etiology of ASD (links).How many more times are males more likely to have an ASD than females?Briefly describe the physical and motor characteristics of individuals with ASD.Provide a brief explanation of the educational approaches when teaching individuals with ASD.What are considered sensorimotor activities?Describe instructional and management techniques.Describe a picture/communication board.List the types of learners.Briefly describe functional behavioral analysis.Briefly describe a behavioral intervention plan.Provide an explanation of token economy.Provide an explanation of Premack principle.

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Autism Spectrum

Asperger syndrome
Rett’s disorder
Childhood disintegrative disorder
Pervasive developmental disorder,
not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)


Social interaction
◦ Nonverbal
◦ High pitch
◦ Unusual statements
◦ Isolated
◦ Avoidance of eye contact

Repetitive activities
◦ Rocking back and forth
◦ Hand flapping

Resistance to change
◦ Need for sameness

Sensory responses
◦ Extreme sensory overload

◦ High vocabulary

Social interaction
◦ No understanding of social norms of behavior

Interests and behaviors
◦ Obsesses on a topic of interest

Genetic link

Neurological link
◦ Most common is fragile X syndrome.
◦ Problems with neurotransmitters in the brain.

Vaccination link
◦ Any connection???

The CDC has estimated that 3 to 6 per 1,000
children have an ASD

Males are ______ times more likely to have an
ASD than females.

ASD is now the ___________ largest childhood
disability condition.

None to Severe


Applied behavior analysis
◦ Systematically apply interventions to improve
__________________ and demonstrate that the
interventions are responsible for the improvement.
◦ Variety of interventions; most common known as
discrete trial training (Lovaas, 1987).

Developed by Eric Schopler at UNC in the 1970s

Model based on the culture of autism
Developed by Dr. Stanley Greenspan (1998) and
based on six milestones:
1. The dual ability to take an interest in the
________, __________, and ____________ of
the world and to calm oneself down
The ability to _________ in relationships with
other people
The ability to engage in two-way
_____________ with _____________
4. The ability to create ___________ gestures, to
string together a series of actions into an
elaborate and deliberate _______________________experience
5. The ability to create _________
6. The ability to build ___________ between ideas to
make them ________ based and __________

Affect is more critical for many elements of
language acquisition and use than has been
traditionally realized.

Use affect and engagement in pleasurable backand-forth reciprocal interactions as the foundation
for the development of imitation, pragmatics (use
of language), and receptive and expressive

Social stories are written according to specific
guidelines to describe a situation, event, or
activity (Gray, 2000).

◦ Consider the learner, the task, and the

Activity selection
◦ Consider the needs and interests of the learner.

Sensorimotor activities

Instructional and management techniques
◦ Allow time for learner to become familiar with the
◦ Use _________ and _______________ cues and
◦ Provide effective _______________ and ____________.

Picture/communication board
◦ Supports the visual learning style of students with

Routines and structure
◦ Include setting beginning and end points.

Natural cues and task analysis
◦ Break skills down as needed for learner success.

Correction procedure rule
◦ Take the child back to the last correct response
and repeat the incorrect response.

Parallel talk
◦ Label actions as they are being performed to
promote receptive and expressive language skills.

Learning modalities
◦ Types of learners:
◦ Students with ASD tend to learn best using visual

Support personnel
◦ Assist in providing individualized instruction.

Positive behavior support
◦ Conduct a FBA.
◦ Implement a BIA.
◦ Create positive environments based on the needs
and interests of the learner.

Use Token economy and Premack principle

Provide a continuum of placement options
suited to the best interest of the learner with
an emphasis on inclusion.

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