” After considering the history of the Muslim world in the period between the eleventh and sixteenth centuries, which particular events, processes, and/or encounters would you deem overall the most enduring and most defining? ”
hst_142_muslim_world_1000_1500_winter_2019_introduction_to_muslim_world_history.pptx

hst_142_winter_2019_rise_of_the_islamic_world_system.pptx

hst_142_winter_2019_the_world_of_ibn_battuta_i.pptx

hst_142_winter_2019_the_world_of_ibn_battuta_ii.pptx

hst_142_winter_2019_mecca_and_the_hajj__1_.pptx

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Introduction to Muslim World
History
HST 142 Muslim World 1000-1500
Winter 2019
Dr. Mbengue
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Questions on Egger
• Egger describes Islam in its beginning as a ‘religio-social
movement of reform’. What is your understanding of
that qualification?
• Was the rise and expansion of Islam totally expected?
• In the author’s view, what made the Islamic experience
unique. Was it its rise or its staying power?
• Is it fair to speak of the Muslim world as a monolith?
• Why is the author defining the period between 600
and 950 of Islamic history as formative?
Southwest Asia before in the late 6th
and early 7th centuries
• Dominated by two major empires: the
Byzantine (Roman) empire based in
Constantinople and the Sasanid (Persian)
empire based in Ctesiphon;
• Period of intense rivalries and armed conflicts
between the two dominant empires;
• In their southern borders, each of these
empires allied themselves with a number of
Arabian tribes or Arabian confederates;
Birth of Islam
• Islam started in northwest Arabia, in the cuty
of Mecca in the Hijaz, shortly after the first
decade into the 7th century;
• It did not start to truly spread until after the
Hijra in 622 C.E., when it established itself in
Medina;
• By 632, it became a major force within the
Arabian peninsula
The Rashidun state 632-661
• The Rashidun state corresponds with that
period immediately after the Prophet
Muhammad;
• It is a period of both consolidation within
Arabia and rapid expansion to Syria, Iraq,
North Africa and beyond;
• The capital of the Islamic state remained in
Medina in the Hijaz;
The Umayyad State 661-750
• Marked the rise of the first dynasty in Muslim
history;
• Damascus (Syria) becomes capital of the
Muslim state;
• Continuation of territorial expansion in the
Atlantic – Indus axis;
The Abbasid State 750-1258
• Second major dynasty;
• Baghdad (Iraq) becomes capital of the Muslim
state;
• Corresponds with ‘golden age’ of Islamic
culture and civilization;
Rise of the Islamic World System
HST 142 Muslim World 1000 – 1500
Winter 2019
Dr. Mbengue
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1.Caspian Sea;
2.Red Sea
3.Persian Gulf
4.Aral Sea;
5.Iberian Peninsula;
6.Arabian Sea;
7.Bay of Bengal
8.Mediterranean
Questions on Robert Irving
• What was al-Mawardi’s work about?
• From which century was al-Mawardi?
• Would you see al-Mawardi’s work as descriptive of the
ideals or rather the realities of his time?
• Why, in your view, would Irvin start his text with alMawardi and his work on political theory?
• Is it fair to speak of political unity in the Muslim world
of the eleventh century?
• Which main political states did Irvin list in his
presentation of the Muslim world in the eleventh
century?
Questions on Robert Irving
• In what ways do these political states differ?
Give some examples.
Internal Forces
• Rise of the Ulamas;
• Sense of one perennial community (Umma)
despite the temporary states/dynasties;
• Important lingua-franca (mainly Arabic and
relatively Persian);
• General consensus on the authority of the
Qur’an;
• Relative territorial continuity and dominance
over major waterways (e.g. Indian ocean).
States/Dynasties 10th -13th Centuries










Abbasid;
Ghaznavid;
Buyid;
Fatimid;
Umayyad (in Iberia);
Almoravid;
Almohad;
Zengid;
Ayyubid;
Mameluk.
External Challenges
• Crusades;
• Mongol invasions;
• Plague.
Mongolian Expansion
The World of Ibn Battuta I
HST 142 Muslim World, 1000-1500
Winter 2019
Dr. Mbengue
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1- Deccan Plateau; 2- Anatolia; 3- Khurasan; 4- Aral Sea;
5-Malabar Coast; 6 – Amu Darya; 7- Syr Darya; 8- Caspian Sea; 9. Caucasus;
10. Coromandel Coast; 11. Transoxiana.
Questions on D. Ross’s Ibn Battuta
• What, according to Dunn, represents the best
source to know about Ibn Battuta’s life?
• Would you describe the Rihla as an
autobiography? Why or why not?
• Would you characterize the Rihla as the classical
version of the modern travelogue?
• What could be considered strength in Ibn
Battuta’s work?
• What could be considered weakness in Ibn
Battuta’s work?
Questions on D. Ross’s Ibn Battuta
• How did Dunn put together his work on Ibn Battuta?
• Do you have any problem with Dunn’s methodology?
Why or why not?
• In which modern-day nation-state was Ibn Battuta
born?
• Would you consider the Rihla a good source to study
the Muslim world of the fourteenth century? Why or
why not?
• Are there significant places of the Muslim world that,
would you say, Ibn Battuta left out in his travels?
Questions on D. Ross’s Ibn Battuta
• Was the Rihla a well-established genre in the
Muslim world during Ibn Battuta’s time?
• According to Dunn, has Ibn Battuta’s own
Rihla been well known outside the Muslim
world to this day?
• To whom in the West, is Ibn Battuta often
compared to?
• In what ways do the experiences of Ibn
Battuta and Marco Polo differ?
Questions on D. Ross’s Ibn Battuta
• How did Dunn call the period of eastern hemispheric
history between 1000 and 1500 C.E.?
• Do you agree with that title?
• In his introduction, Dunn sets the ‘Middle Period’
Muslim civilization from its counterparts from the
same era. In which particular aspect was it different?
• What is your understanding of the concept of
‘egalitarian contractualism’?
• How do you understand the notion of
‘intercommunicating zone’ used by Dunn in his
introduction?
The World of Ibn Battuta
HST 142 Muslim World, 1000-1500
Winter 2019
Dr. Mbengue
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A. Ifriqiya; B. Strait of Gibraltar; C. Iberia; D. Sicily; E. Cyrenaica; F. Tripolitana;
Questions on Dunn (chap. 1)
• According to Dunn, did Tangier have any
geostrategic meaning in the early fourteenth
century?
• What determine the status of Tangier?
• What is your understanding of the Maghrib,
after reading Dunn’s chapter 1?
• Why did Dunn describe the early fourteenth
century as a time of transition for the
Maghrib?
Questions on Dunn (chap. 1)
• What did North Africa and Iberia have in common from
the eighth to the thirteenth century?
• Who were the Almohads?
• What was the 1212 Battle of Las Novas de Tolosa
about? What did it signal?
• What happened to the Almohad state after their losses
in Iberia?
• What remained of Muslim presence in Iberia after the
retreat of the Almohads?
• Did religion play a role in the alliances between the
successor states of the Almohads?
Questions on Dunn (chap. 1)
• Overall, did Tangier specifically gain or lose
from the fall of the Almohads?
• Where did Tangier’s prosperity come from?
• Was the level of education expected from
someone like Ibn Battuta typical from any
native of fourteenth century Tangier?
• How did Dunn describe Islamic education in
the ‘Middle Period’?
Bou Inania Madrasa court, Fez (Marinid)
Mecca and the Hajj
HST 142 Muslim World, 1000-1500
Winter 2019
Dr. Mbengue
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a. Najd; b. Empty Quarter; c. Sinai Peninsula; d. Hijaz; e. Bab al-Mandab; f. Strait of Ormuz;
g. Nafud desert; h. Syrian desert
Questions (Dunn, Chap. 4)
• What was the main purpose of Ibn Battuta’s trip
to Arabia?
• What determined the decision to take the land
route to pilgrimage during Ibn Battuta’s time?
• From which city did Ibn Battuta formally depart
for pilgrimage?
• Which city in the Hijaz was the direct destination
of Ibn Battuta and his caravan?
• Why was Medina important to Ibn Battuta and to
Muslims in general?
Questions (Dunn, chap. 4)
• What was and still is the main religious meaning of
Mecca?
• Who were ruling Mecca and Medina during the time of
Ibn Battuta?
• What did the pilgrimage to Mecca entail for states
claiming leadership in the Muslim world such as the
Mamluks in the fourteenth century for example?
• In which ways was the pilgrimage special?
• Did the trip to Mecca have any impact on Ibn Battuta’s
decision to travel around the Muslim world? Why or
why not?

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