500-750 words.5%Works Cited Required.Prompt: How did your self-selected analytical category affect the lives of the urban dwellers in this time period?Remember:You are expected to construct a thesis statement that reflects the way you are putting together (synthesizing) the information from all the readings in your self-selected analytical category.Then, in the body paragraphs, provide specific examples from assigned readings (assigned readings for this assignment: all readings posted in the category you select PLUS any other course sources previously assigned) in a way that substantiates your overall main point.Provide specific examples and proper citations for earlier sources as well as the ones assigned for this reflection.Discuss, Expand, Exemplify!Here are the reading assigned for the assignment. I have also attached the others as well. https://journals-sagepub-com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/doi…- (REQUIRED)http://trianglefire.ilr.cornell.edu/https://www-jstor-org.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/stable/pdf/3110343.pdfhttps://journals-sagepub-com.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/doi…https://www-jstor-org.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/stable/pdf/1011913.pdfhttps://www-jstor-org.proxy1.cl.msu.edu/stable/pdf/1035896.pdf
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Engs, Ruth C.
The progressive era’s health refonn movement: a historical dictionary I Ruth Clifford Engs.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-275-97932-6 (alk. paper)
1. Health care refoITll-United States-History-19th century-Dictionaries. 2. Health
care reform-United States-History-20th century-Dictionaries. 3. Progressivism
(United States politics)-History-19th century-Dictionaries. 4. Progressivism (United
States politics)-History-20th century. I. Title.
RA395.A3 E547 2003
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available.
Copyright © 2003 by Ruth Clifford Engs
All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be
reproduced, by any process or technique, without the
express written consent of the publisher.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Nmnber: 2002028759
First published in 2003
Praeger Publishers, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881
An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
Printed in the United States of America
The paper used in this book complies with the
Pennanent Paper Standard issued by the National
Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984).
This dictionary is dedicated to the memory of
Theodore Alexander Clifford (January 31, 1909-April12, 1999)
my father, who taught me a love of history and to
“look it up in the dictionary”
Harold Oscar Franz (May 19, 1925-August 2, 1999)
my father-in-law, who enjoyed good conversation
and was a “dictionary”
Young Men’s Christian Association
1891. This concept of “all-around Christian manhood” demanded
character building and fostering physical strength, discipline, and
The YMCA was linked to many health-reform crusades and formed
the core of the physical education movement.’ It exerted a formative role in antiobscenity’ laws. Its New York city members supported Anthony Comstock,’ the leader of the antivice movement,
and established the New York Committee for the Suppression of
Vice.’ The association sponsored the White Cross Societies’ of the
purity movement.’ It offered its facilities for educational programs
about good hygiene habits and the prevention of tuberculosis .• The
Y was stridently antialcohol and was involved in temperance’ and
prohibition’ work. It was integral to the antismoking movement.’
Its executives endorsed the work of the Antismoking Leagues’ and
provided a forum for Lucy Gaston’ and other antismoking leaders.
During the second Clean Living Movement’s backlash era of the
1920s, decreased interest was shown in the muscular Christian philosophy. As a result, membership and activities atthe YMCA began.
to decline, only to blossom again in the 1970s with the late twentiethcentury fitness craze. References: Boyer, Paul S., Purity in Print: The
Vice-Society Movement and Book Censorship in America (1968);
Calkins, Raymond, Substitutes for the Saloon (1901); Putney, Clifford,
“Character building in the YMCA, 1880-1930,” Mid-America: An
Historical Review 73 Uanuary 1991), 49-70, Muscular Christianity:
The Strenuous Mood in American Protestantism,188o-1920 (1994).
James A. Garfield is elected president.
German pathologist Karl Joseph Eberth identifies the typhoid bacillus, the
pathogen that causes typhoid fever.
French Chemist Louis Pasteur discovers streptococcus pneumoniae.
French physician Alphonse Laveran discovers the parasite that causes malaria; Laveran receives the Nobel’ Prize in 1907.
A new treaty with China [ratified in 1881) modifies the Burlingame Treaty
of 1868 and allows the American government to “regulate, limit or
suspend,” but not prohibit, immigration of Chinese laborers; a supple-
mentary treaty [ratified in 1881) prohibits Chinese subjects ~om importing opium into the United States and American citizens from
importing opium into China.
The Salvation Army, organized in London in 1865, is established in the
At its national convention in Cleveland, the Prohibition Party nominates
Neal Dow of Maine for president.
AI;!. amendment to the Kansas state constitution prohibits alcoholic beverages; the amendment goes into effect May 1, 1881.
Anthony Comstock publishes Frauds Exposed; or, How the People are De-
ceived and Robbed, and Youth Corrupted.
President Garfield is shot, and upon his death Chester Alan Arthur becomes
Clara Barton organizes the American Association of the Red Cross (named
the American National Red Cross in 1893 and the American Red Cross
Booker T. Washington founds the Normal and Industrial Institute for Negroes [later the Tuskegee Institute).
Thomas Edison’s steam-powered central electricity station on Pearl Street
in New York city begins operation.
German bacteriologist Robert Koch isolates the bacillus responsible for tu-‘
Massachusetts passes the first pure food laws. in large part thanks to research done by Ellen Swallow Richards.
The immigration law of August 3, 1882, bars the immigration of “undesirables”: idiots. lunatics. convicts, and persons likely to become public charges; it also levies a fifty-cent tax on immigrants landing at
Congress passes the Chinese Exclusion Act over President Arthur’s veto;
the law prohibits Chinese laborers from entering the United States
for ten years.
The Edmunds Act prohibits polygamists from voting, holding office, or serving on juries; it makes unlawful cohabitation a misdemeanor.
At its national convention in Pittsburgh, the Prohibition Party nominates
John P. St. John of Kansas for president.
French chemist Louis Pasteur develops a vaccine for rabies.
The Association for the Advancement of Physical Education is formed; in
1886 it changes its name to the American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education, and in 1903 it becomes the American Physical Education Association.
In response to anti-Chinese riots in the Washington Territory in October,
President Cleveland sends federal troops to maintain order and end
the unrest. which continues into 1886.
The Women’s Christian Temperance Union begins a campaign to raise the
age of consent and forms a Social Purity Department within the
The Brooklyn Bridge opens.
German pathologist Edwin Klebs discovers the diphtheria bacillus.
British physician Thomas Barlow describes infantile scurvy and distin~
guishes it from rickets.
German bacteriologist Robert Koch discovers the cholera bacillus.
The Pendleton Act (the Civil Service Act) provides for the regulation and
improvement of the civil service of the United States and creates the
Civil Service Commission.
The Union Signal, a journal of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union,
Journal of the American Medical Association begins publication.
Francis Galton publishes Inquiries into Human Faculty and Development.
Anthony Comstock publishes Traps for the Young.
Grover Cleveland is elected president.
German physician Arthur Nicolaier discovers the tetanus bacillus.
German bacteriologist Friedrich Loeffler isolates the diphtheria bacillus (the
Klebs-Loeffler bacillus), which Edwin Klebs discovered in 1883.
Ophthalmic surgeon Carl Koller uses cocaine as a surface anesthetic during
Dr. Edward Livingston Trudeau establishes the Trudeau Sanitarium in
Saranac Lake, New York.
The New York Cancer Hospital, the first hospital in the United States devoted
entirely to the treatment of cancer, is founded in New York city.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1884 amends the 1882 act and increases re~
strictions on the immigration of Chinese laborers.
President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.
The Apache leader Geronimo surrenders to General Nelson Miles.
German surgeon Ernst von Bergmann introduces steam sterilization of surgical instruments and dressings.
In Haymarket Square, Chicago, police attempt to disperse a crowd protesting
the treatment of strikers at the McConnick Harvester plant; a bomb explodes and kills seven officers and four workmen. Eight men are brought
to trial, seven of them are sentenced to death, and four are hanged.
Atlanta pharmacist John S. Pemberton creates Coca-Cola, a beverage first touted
as a tonic for common ailments; among its ingredients is cocaine from
the coca leaf. The cocaine is removed from the formula in 1905.
The Philanthropist, the journal of the New York Committee for the Prevention of State Regulation of Vice, begins publication.
John Harvey Kellogg publishes Plain Facts for Old and Young: Embracing
the Natural History and Hygiene of Organic Life. a new and revised
edition of the title that he originally published as Plain Facts about
Sexual Life in 1877.
The Dawes Act authorizes the dissolution of Indian tribal lands by “allotment of lands in severalty to Indians on the various reservations.”
Following the terms of the Treaty of 1880, the Opium Traffic Act makes it a
misdemeanor for Chinese subjects to import opium or for American
citizens to import, transport, buy or sell. or engage in any traffic in
opium in the ports of China.
The Marine Hospital Service establishes a bacteriological laboratory, known
as the :’Laboratory of Hygiene,” under Dr. Joseph J. Kinyoun at the
Marine Hospital on Staten Island, New York.
The Pasteur Institute is established by decree on June 4, 1887, and inaugurated on November 14, 1888, by the president of the French Republic.
The Edmunds-Tucker Act disincorporates the Mormon Church and authorizes seizure of its property, except buildings used exclusively for
worship; it also dissolves plural marriages and disenfranchises
In Clinton Iowa. Henry Bowers founds the American Protective Association, a secret society concerned about the growth in population and
political power of cities with large numbers of immigrants.
The American Physiological Society is formed in New York.
Newspaper reporter Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane) feigns insanity and
spends ten days in the mental hospital on Blackwell’s Island, New
York; her expose of the deplorable treatment of inmates of the asylum appears in the New York World.
American Journal of Psychology begins publication.
Benjamin Harrison is elected president.
The Exclusion of Chinese Laborers Act makes it unlawful for Chinese laborers who have left the United States to return~
A second Exclusion of Chinese Laborers Act bars any Chinese person from
entering the United States, with the exception of “Chinese officials,
teachers, students, merchants, or travelers for pleasure.” and they
must have the permission of the U.S. government.
An epidemic of yellow fever breaks out in Jacksonville. Florida, in July and
lasts until December.
The International Council of Women, assembled by the National Woman
Suffrage Association, meets in Washington, D.C.
The National Equal Rights Party nominates lawyer Belva Lockwood ofWashington, D.C., for president; she had also been a candidate in 1884.
At its national convention in Indianapolis, the Prohibition Party nominates
Clinton B. Fisk of New Jersey for president.
Edward Bellamy publishes Looking Bockward, 2000-1887.
Frederick Wines publishes Report on the Defective, Dependent and Delinquent Classes of the Population of the United States, as Returned at
the Tenth Census (July 1, 1880).
Oscar M. McCulloch publishes The Tribe of Ishmael: A Study in Social
Jane Addams and Ellen Starr establish Hull House in Chicago.
The Johns Hopkins Hospital opens in Baltimore, Maryland.
President Benjamin Harrison authorizes opening Oklahoma (Indian Territory) to white settlement.
The Age of Consent Act of February 9,1889, prohibits “carnally and unlawfully” knowing “any female under the age of sixteen” in the District
of Columbia and other places “over which the United States has exclusive jurisdiction.”
The Arena begins publication.
Frances Willard publishes Glimpses of Fifty Years; The Autobiography of
an American Woman.
Sequoia National Park and Yosemite National Park are established in California.
u.s. troops defeat the Sioux at Wounded Knee, South Dakota; it is the last
major battle of the Indian wars.
William Stewart Halsted introduces the use of rubber gloves to help ensure
sterile conditions in the operating room.
The Sherman Antitrust Act to protect trade and commerce against unlawful
restraints and monopolies makes unlawful “every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of
trade among the several states, or with foreign countries.”
German bacteriologist Emil von Behring, working with Kitasato Shibasaburo, ‘
discovers that sublethal injections of blood serum of an animal infected with tetanus confer passive immunity to the disease on another animal; he calls the technique “antitoxic immunity.”
In Leisy v. Hardin the Supreme Court rules that as a matter of interstate
commerce states may not regulate liquor imported into their jurisdictions if the article remains in its original package.
The Original Packages Act (the Wilson Act), passed in response to the Leisy
v. Hardin decision, makes “intoxicating liquors or liquids” subject to
the laws of the state or territory into which they are imported.
Mormon church president Wilford Woodruff issues a manifesto formally
renouncing the practice of polygamy.
Dr. Lawrence Flick establishes the Rush Hospital for Consumption and Allied Diseases in Philadelphia.
Wyoming enters the union; its constitution includes women’s right to vote
(territorial law since 1869).
The National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution is organized in Washington, D.C.
Swedish pediatrician Oskar Medin, after involvement in the 1887 outbreak
of poliomyelitis in Stockholm, categorizes the various types and stages
of the disease and notes that it is epidemic in form.
The Duke family forms the American Tobacco Company; it will eventually
control virtually the entire American tobacco industry. In 1911 the
courts find the company in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act
and order it dissolved.
Two factions of the woman suffrage movement, the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association,
reunite to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association.
In United States v. the Late Corporation Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints, the Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of the
‘1887 Edmunds-Thcker Act.
Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tene-
The Supreme Court of Ohio rules Standard Oil of Ohio a trust; John D.
Rockefeller and his associates dissolve the trust and trust certificates
are exchanged for shares in twenty separate companies. A new en-
ments of New York.
An act amending various immigration and alien lahor acts excludes from
admission to the United States idiots, insane persons, paupers or
persons liable to become a public charge, persons suffering from a
loathsome or a dangerous contagious disease, polygamists, and felons.
The act also creates the Office of Superintendent of Immigration and
provides inspection of immigrants by federal inspection officers and
medical examinations by surgeons of the Marine Hospital Service.
The American Cereal Company incorporates in Ohio with Henry P. Crowell
as vice president and general manager; the company aggressively mar-
kets the already established “Quaker” brand and promotes the wholesomeness, convenience, and sanitary packaging of Quaker Oats with
testimonials, contests, displays, calendars, and give-aways.
The British Institute of Preventive Medicine (later the Lister Institute) opens
In New Orleans, Louisiana, a mob kills, by shooting or lynching, eleven
tity, Standard Oil (New Jersey), buys up all or most of the shares in
the Standard companies and reconstitutes its hold on the petroleum
During a four-month strike in Homestead, Pennsylvania, Pinkerton guards
are hired to protect strikebreakers from striking steelworkers; in the
conflict that follows, ten men are killed “and the Pennsylvania militia
is called in to restore order; the strike is broken.
At its National Convention in Cincinnati the Prohibition Party nominates
John Birdwell of California for president.
Scientific Temperance Monthly Advices begins publication; in 1894 it becomes the School Physiology Journal and in 1909 the Scientific Temperance Journal.
The Columbian Exposition opens in Chicago.
A serious economic depression begins with the financial panic of 1893.
Italian immigrants accused of murdering the chief of police but ac-
Howard Russell founds the Ohio Anti-Saloon League.
quitted at their trial.
Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster establish a visiting nurses service on the
Lower East Side of New York city; in 1895 the Nurse’s Settlement
Grover Cleveland is again elected president.
The Sierra club is founded; John Muir is its first president.
The U.S. Immigration Service opens the Ellis Island immigration station in
New York Harbor.
The Geary Chinese Exclusion Act extends the 1882 act for another ten years.
Silver miners strike in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho; federal troops restore order
after strikers clash with nonunion workers.
The Indian Country Intoxicants Act prohibits the introduction of alcoholic
beverages into the Indian country.
Dr. Lawrence Flick founds the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of
Although they had met in Cincinnati in 1891 to discuss problems and possibilities, dissatisfaction with the Republic and Democratic parties’
position on the currency problem spurs farm and labor organizations
to form the Populist Party; the party selects James B. Weaver ofIowa
as its presidential candidate.
Anti-tobacco reformers petition Congress to enact federal legislation to prohibit cigarettes; the Senate Committee on Epidemic Diseases agrees
that cigarettes are a public health hazard but refer the petitioners to
the states for action.
Russian botanist Dmitrii Iosifovich Ivanovoski demonstrates the existence
moves to Henry Street, and in 1903 it is reorganized and renamed the
Henry Street Settlement.
The state of Washington bans the sale, purchase, gift, and manufacture of
cigarettesj the United States Circuit court finds the law unconstitutional on the grounds of restraint of interstate trade.
The Quarantine Act increases the authority of the government to prevent
the introduction of contagious or infectious diseases into the United
States from foreign countries or from one state ofterritory to another;
it charges the Supervising Surgeon General of the Marine Hospital
Service, under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, with
performing “all the duties in respect to quarantine and quarantine
A yellow fever epidemic breaks out in Brunswick, Georgia.
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine opens in Baltimore; a
new era in II.1edical education begins, with high entrance requirements for students, an improved medical curriculum emphasizing
the scientific method, and the incorporation of hospital teaching and
The Committee of Fifty for the Investigation of the Liquor Problem is organized “to investigate physiological, legislative, ethical and economic
aspects of the drink question.”
The Supreme Court upholds the Chinese Exclusion Act.
Samuel McClure establishes McClure’s Magazine.
Stephen Crane publishes Maggie, a Girl of the Streets.
Frances E. Willard and Mary A. Livermore publish A Woman of the Century: Fourteen Hundred-Seventy Biographical Sketches Accompanied
by Portraits of Leading American Women in All Walks of Life.
Jacob S. Coxey leads an “army” of the jobless from Massillon, Oh …
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