2500 words. 10 pages exclude Bibliography and illustrations. Citations should be Chicago Style. The bibliography should have 10 scholarly sources, and make reference to the required readings (I will put 3 readings below, try to cite these reading in the essay). There should be a minimum of ten texts cited. There is also Powerpoint of what we learn about cubism in class below. Please choose works of art from there (for example, the painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon). The Bibliography for text “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon” is here:
Ratnam, Niru. “Les
Demoiselles d’Avignon.” In Art of the
Avant-Gardes, edited by Steve Edwards and Paul Wood, 176 -181. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 2004.
engcubibrights.pdf

engcubiibrightsdem.pdf

engcubiiibrightsancub.pdf

rosenblum__picasso_and_the_typography_of_cubism.pdf

steinberg_leo_1972_the_philosophical_brothel.pdf

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ART2171 A
MODERN ART 1900-1945
Winter, 2019
Local : # TBT 323
Professor Francine Dagenais (fdagenais@uottawa.ca)
Visual Arts, 100 Laurier East
Office : LRR-106
Telephone: (613) 562-5800 ext. 3265
Office Hours : Monday 5:30-6:30
Today’s class
Cubism : Picasso (Blue, Rose Periods & Analytical Cubism)
Braque (from Fauvism to Cubism)
Course pack available at Rytec Printing on 404 Dalhousie
All rights reserved
For the exclusive use of the students of ART2171A and for
pedagogical purposes only.
Cubism
Pablo Picasso
Georges Braque
Pablo Picasso, Self-Portrait, 1907, oil on canvas, Narodni Gallery,
Prague.
TL:Self-Portrait, 1896-97. Painted at the age of 16.
Reproduced on a stamp issued by the Republic of UpperVolta. Burkina Faso circa 1975: stamp printed by
Burkina Faso.
-TR: Picador, Picasso’s first painting at 8 years old.
-BR: First Communion, 1896, Museu Picasso,
Barcelona. The first Picasso shown at the age of 15.
-BL: by Pablo Picasso, Science and Charity, 1897 Early
Years. Museu Picasso, Barcelona, Spain Painted at the
age of 16.
The Blue Period, 1901-1904
Pablo Picasso, Self-Portrait (at 20), 1901, Picasso Museum, Paris,
France.
Pablo Picasso, The Old Guitarist, 1903, oil on panel, 122.9 cm
× 82.6 cm (48.4 in × 32.5 in), Art
Institute of Chicago.
Pablo Picasso, The Gourmet, 1901,
National Gallery of Art, Washington.
Pablo Picasso, The tragedy,
1903, National Gallery of Art,
Washington.
Pablo Picasso, Breakfast of a Blind Man, 1903,
oil on canvas, Metropolitan Museum of Art,
N.Y.
The Rose Period 1905-1906
The Acrobat Family (Acrobats and
monkey), collage, gouache watercolour,
pastel, ink on cardboard, 1905.
Göegorgs Konstmuseum,
Goteburg.
• In 1904, Picasso took interest in the world of
circus performers and actors.
• Acrobats and the clown-like Harlequin often
became the subject for this new period
known as the Rose Period.
Acrobat and young Harlequin, 1905,
oil on canvas, Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia.
The Family of Saltimbanques (Acrobats), 1905, oil on
canvas, 213 x 230, National Gallery of Art,
Washington.
Cubism
Pablo Picasso. Still Life with Hat (Cézanneʼs Hat),
winter 1908-09. Oil on canvas.
• Around 1906 and 1907 Pablo Picasso and
Georges Braque experiment with new
approaches based on Cézanne’s work.
• Cubism ignores the traditions of
perspectivalism to show many views of a
subject at one time.
• The Cubists introduced collage into
painting.
• The Cubists were influenced by art from
other cultures, particularly African.
• There are two distinct phases of the Cubist
Style: Analytical Cubism (pre 1912) and
Synthetic Cubism (post 1912).
• As always, there is some variation in these
phases and one has to look at the works in
relation to their compositions, colour
palette and stylistic characteristics in order
to determine to which phase they belong.
• “In September 1908 Georges Braque submitted to the jury of the Salon
d’Automne (the Fall Exhibition) six Cézanne-inspired pictures he had recently
created at L’Estaque, where Paul Cézanne himself had painted.
• The Salon jury, headed by Henri Matisse, rejected them. Matisse reportedly
described the refused canvases as being full of ‘little cubes.’ Stung by the rejection,
Braque arranged instead to show twenty-seven of his recent works at DanielHenry Kahnweiler’s gallery on the rue Vignon. That exhibition, which ran from
November 9 to 28, marked the birth of ‘Cubism’ as a concept…” (from the essay,
“The Birth of Cubism: Braque’s Early Landscapes and the 1908 Galerie
Kahnweiler Exhibition,” by Jack Flam).
• B.E.: Flam, Jack, “The Birth of Cubism: Braque’s Early Landscapes and the 1908
Galerie Kahnweiler Exhibition,” in Cubism: The Leonard A. Lauder Collection,
edited by Emily Braun and Rebecca Rabinow (New York: The Metropolitan
Museum of Art, 2014), 22–27.
Paul Cézanne
Mount Sainte-Victoire
1902-1904
oil on canvas
2 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 11 1/4 in.
Georges Braque
1882 – 1963
Photograph of Georges
Braque in his studio
(early 1912).
Georges Braque. The Landscape of La Ciotat, L’Estaque (1906), oil on canvas, 20 1/8 by 24 3/8 in.
51 by 62 cm.
Paul Cézanne, Paul Cézanne(1839-1906), Montagne (Mount) Sainte-Victoire
with Large Pine, 1887 (circa), oil on canvas, The Samuel Courtauld Trust, The
Courtauld Gallery, London.
Paul Cézanne, Still Life with fruit basket. (ca. 1888-90), oil on canvas, 65 x 81 cm, Musée
d’Orsay, Paris. Cézanne shows us different viewpoints in a same painting. In this still life, we see
the side of the basket of fruit while seeing the top of the ginger pot right next to it. The left side of
the table is lower than the right side of the table, and at a slightly different angle. He directs the
gaze from the foreground to the background and then all around the canvas. This gives the
painting a sense of depth without having to use traditional linear perspectivalism.
Multiple ViewPoints
Houses at LʼEstaque
photographed by DanielHenri Kahhnweiler, 1909.
Georges Braque, Houses at L’Estaque
(August 1908), oil
on canvas, 40.5 cm × 32.5 cm (15.9 in ×
12.7 in), Lille Métropole Museum of
Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art.
The very name Cubism came from this
painting. When the critic Vauxcelles heard
Matisse say the houses “look like a bunch
of little cubes,” Vauxcelles subsequently
wrote this in a review.
Georges Braque, Houses at
L’Estaque (August 1908), oil
on canvas, 40.5 cm × 32.5 cm (15.9 in
× 12.7 in), Lille Métropole Museum
of Modern, Contemporary and
Outsider Art.
Paul Cézanne
Montagne (Mount) Sainte-Victoire
1902-1904
oil on canvas
2 ft. 3 1/2 in. x 2 ft. 11 1/4 in.
There are 11 versions of the
Montagne..
Georges Braque. Terrace of
Hotel Mistral (autumn 1907).
Oil on canvas.
L: Cézanne, Paul ; 1839–1906.
“The viaduct at L’Estaque”, c.1882–85.
oil on canvas, H. 0,540 ; W. 0,655.
Helsinki, Ateneumin Taidemuseo.
R: Georges Braque,
Viaduct at Lʼ Estaque
(early 1908), oil on
canvas, Centre Pompidou.
William Jamesʼ “folding
visiting card” experiment
(James, 1890, vol. 1, p.225).
Pablo Picasso.
Cottage and Trees
(August 1908).
Oil on canvas.
William Jamesʼ “folding
visiting card” experiment
(James, 1890, vol.1, p.225.
Georges Braque. House at
LʼEstaque (August 1908).
Oil on canvas. Lille Métropole
Museum of Modern, Contemporary
and Outsider Art.
Georges Braque.
Viaduct at LʼEstaque
(summer 1908).
Oil on canvas.
Pablo Picasso. Landscape with Bridge (spring 1909).
Oil on canvas. National Gallery Prague.
“Picasso is taking Cézanne’s elements – the cone, cylinder and sphere – into
Cubism. Matisse is taking Cézanne’s interest in the wholeness and the clarity of
figures. They’re taking almost opposite interpretations of what they see in
Cézanne: Picasso is understanding it as decomposition, and Matisse is
understanding it as composition.” John Elderfield. (MoMA-curator and Matisse
scholar) as quoted in ‘Matisse & Picasso, Paul Trachtman, Smithsonian
Magazine, February 2003, p. 4.
ART2171 A
MODERN ART 1900-1945
Winter, 2019
Local : # TBT 323
Professor Francine Dagenais (fdagenais@uottawa.ca)
Visual Arts, 100 Laurier East
Office : LRR-106
Telephone: (613) 562-5800 ext. 3265
Office Hours : Monday 5:30-6:30
Today’s class
Cubism : Picasso (Blue, Rose Periods & Analytical Cubism)
Braque (from Fauvism to Cubism)
Course pack available at Rytec Printing on 404 Dalhousie
All rights reserved
For the exclusive use of the students of ART2171A and for
pedagogical purposes only.
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (The young ladies
of Avignon)
L: Iberian Statue (6th – 5th centuries B.C.).
R: Two Nudes, Late 1906, Paris, oil on canvas, 59 5/8 x 36 5/8″ (151.3 x 93
cm), MoMA. Picasso draws his inspiration from ancient Iberian sculpture.
Towards Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
Pablo Picasso, Gertrude Stein
1906-1907
oil on canvas
3 ft. 3 3/8 in. x 2 ft. 8 in., Metropolitan Museum of
Art, N.Y.
Paul Cézanne, Madame
Cézanne in a Yellow
Chair (1888-90), oil on
Canvas, Art Institute of Chicago,
Pablo Picasso. Woman with a Fan (late spring 1908). Oil on canvas, The State Hermitage, St. Petersburg.
Pablo Picasso, Nude with Raised Arm and Drapery (Study for ‘Les demoiselles d’Avignon’), Paris,
spring-summer 1907, oil on canvas, 25 5/8 by 19 3/4 inches.
In 1906, around the time Picasso meets Braque, he begins an
exploration of what is to become Cubism. Inspired by Cézanne’s
sense of space. He works with his friend George Braque.
He expresses space and the forms which inhabit it by means of
geometry. The sculptural effect derived from this experimentation
leads to Cubism.
Pablo Picasso, The Dryad (1908), oil
on canvas, 185 x 108 cm, The State
Hermitage, St. Petersburg.
Vesalius. 7th plate of the muscles from the
2nd book of De Humani Corporis Fabrica
(1543).
Example of bas-relief
Pablo Picasso. Friendship (winter
1907-08). Oil on canvas. The State
Hermitage Museum, St-Petersburg.
Example of bas-relief—shallow relief sculpture
Henri Matisse. Back II (ca.1913), MoMa, N.Y.
Bronze. This series resurfaced in the 1950s in plaster. When they
Michelangelo. Slaves (1509).
Marble. Non finito slaves can be found at the
Academia Galleria.
Pablo Picasso. Three Women
(autumn1907- late 1908),
oil on canvas, The State Hermitage, St-Petersburg.
Pablo Picasso photographed in his studio at 11 Boulevard de Clichy (1909-1912),
He receives many visitors, among them Apollinaire, a great defender of Cubism.
Pablo Picasso
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
1907
oil on canvas
8 ft. x 7 ft. 8 in.
Picasso in conversation with Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler:“Les Demoiselles
d’Avignon, how this title irritates me, Salmon invented it. You know very
well that the original title from the beginning had been The Brothel of
Avignon. But do you know why? Because Avignon has always been a name I
knew very well and it is a part of my life. I lived not two steps away from the
Calle d’Avignon where I used to buy my paper and my watercolors and also,
as you know, the grandmother of Max came originally from Avignon. We
used to make a lot of fun of this painting; one of the women in it was Max’s
grandmother, another one Fernande, and another one Marie Laurencin, and all
of them in a brothel in Avignon.”
F.: Leo Steinberg, “The Philosophical Brothel, Part 1,” ArtNews 71, Sept. 1972, 20 29; and “Part 2,” ArtNews 71 (Oct. 1972, 46 of 38 – 47. The article was later revised
and published as one article in the spring 1988 issue of October.
Henri Matisse, Bathers with a Turtle, 1908, oil on canvas, 179 x 220 cm.
City Art Museum, St. Louis. In response to Les Demoiselles d’Avignon.
John Baldessari, Double Vision: Cézanne, 2011, varnished archival print on canvas with
oil paint, 189.2 × 137.2 Size (cm), 74.5 × 54.0 Size (in). In response to Les Demoiselles
d’Avignon, Matisse’s Bathers with a Turtle, and Cézanne’s Bathers.
Paul Cézanne in front of one of his Bathers.
Cézanne, The Three Bathers, 1879-1882, Barnes Foundation, PA.
Henri Matisse, Blue Nude (Souvenir of Biskra), 1907, 92 × 140 cm, Baltimore
Museum of Art.
BARR Diagram
for the evolution of
Modern Art
U-L:Pablo Picasso. Composition Study
with Figures for Les Demoiselles
d’Avignon. Carnet 2, 32R. Winter 19061907. Graphite pencil on beige paper, 5 7/8
x 4 1/8”. Musée Picasso, Paris.
. Pablo Picasso. Compositional Study with
Seven Figures for “Les Demoiselles
d’Avignon”. Carnet 3, 14V. March 1907.
Graphite pencil on beige paper. 7 5/8 x 9
½”. Musée Picasso, Paris.
Pablo Picasso. Compositional
Study with Seven Figures for “Les
Demoiselles d’Avignon”. Carnet 3,
14V. March 1907. Graphite pencil
on beige paper.
Pablo Picasso. Studies for the Medical Student. Carnet 3, 37V. March 1907. Graphite pencil on beige paper. 7
5/8 x 9 1/2”. Musée Picasso, Paris.
Pablo Picasso. Medical Student, Sailor, and
Five Nudes in a Bordello (Composition
Study for “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”).
March-April 1907. Graphite pencil and
pastel on paper, 18 ¾ x 25”. Öffentilche
Kunstammlung Basel, Kupferstichkabinett.
Bequest of the artist to the city of Basel.
Pablo Picasso
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
1907
oil on canvas
8 ft. x 7 ft. 8 in.
Elements represented in the image:
Five nudes, women, geometrically depicted
bodies,
Four women standing and facing the viewer.
One is crouching and turning her back.
Drapes or Sheets. A still life with fruit.
No real sense of depth or perspective.
Three Dominant Colours show vertical
rectangles such as ochre on the right, blue
on the left and grey in the middle.
The cool colours give an impression of
distance whereas the warm tones used for
the figures bring the bodies into the
foreground.
The painting depicts five nude women whose faces are constructed from flat triangular
forms. Their faces are inspired by Iberian sculptures, African masks as well as
photographs of women taken in Africa and published in a contemporary magazine. The
African masks were from DR Congo and Gabon among other countries. Picasso seeks to
distance himself from traditional European painting by studying Primitivism (African
and Iberian art) and by painting in two dimensions.
Artist unknown. Fang Mask,
probably from the Ngil society,
Gabon, owned by André Derain and
Maurice de Vlaminck. Date
uncertain. Painted exotic wood. 16
½ x 11 1/5 x 5 ¾”.
This 19th-century Fang Mask (Gabon, a country along
the Atlantic coast of Central Africa) is similar in style to
some Picasso encountered in Paris (at the Trocadero)
just prior to Les Demoiselles d’Avignon.
Iberian Statue (6th – 5th centuries B.C.).
L: Pablo Picasso. Detail of the squatter and MoMA X-ray from “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”. Oil on
canvas. 96 × 92”. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
R: Artist unknown (Central Pende peoples). Mbuya (sickness) mask, Zaire. Date unknown. Painted
wood, fiber, cloth. Tervuren, Royal Museum of Central Africa.
Pablo Picasso. Detail of the curtain-parter and MoMA X-ray from “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”. Oil
on canvas. 96 × 92”. Museum of Modern Art, New York. Figure derived from an African mask.
This face can be found in the upper right hand corner of the painting.
Pablo Picasso.
Head of a Woman
(1907). Oil on canvas.
/ Dan (people of Liberia) Mask.
Fruit bowl (and still life), detail taken from the bottom centre of the
Demoiselles d’Avignon painting. According to Steinberg, this would
be considered a phallic symbol in the centre of a work where all the
figures are female, and prostitutes.
Pablo Picasso
Les Demoiselles d’Avignon
1907
oil on canvas
8 ft. x 7 ft. 8 in.
ART2171 A
MODERN ART 1900-1945
Winter, 2019
Local : # TBT 323
Professor Francine Dagenais (fdagenais@uottawa.ca)
Visual Arts, 100 Laurier East
Office : LRR-106
Telephone: (613) 562-5800 ext. 3265
Office Hours : Monday 5:30-6:30
Today’s class
Cubism : Picasso (Blue, Rose Periods & Analytical Cubism)
Braque (from Fauvism to Cubism)
Course pack available at Rytec Printing on 404 Dalhousie
All rights reserved
For the exclusive use of the students of ART2171A and for
pedagogical purposes only.
Picasso and Braque
Analytical Cubism
1908 – 1912
Cubism: Structural Influences
1. Mathematical treatise on the fourth dimension based on Poincarré’s
theories.
2. The recent discovery of the X-Ray.
3. The grid system.
The Grid
• evoked ideas of the visible
layers of the body
• means of holding the
composition together
Grid used as an aid to
anatomical drawings
The X-ray: Seeing Beyond the
Limits of the Human Sensorium
First whole body x-ray of a living person
Skeleton, heart, liver, rings, necklace,
bracelet, hatpin, button boots with nailed
on heels, and a whalebone corset are all
visible.
William Morton. X-ray photo
The Fourth Dimension
One dimensional
Two dimensional
Fourth dimensional
Three dimensional
Tesseract (4-cube) or four-dimensional analogue to the
cube.
The mathematical principles underpinning Cubism. Illustration taken from the Traité élémentaire de
géométrie à quatre dimensions (Elementary Treatise on the Geometry of Four Dimensions, 1903) by Jouffret.
Princet offered this book to Picasso, it had a profound influence on the artist.
.
Georges Braque. Chateau at La
Roche-Guyon (summer 1909). Oil
on canvas. Van Abbe Museum,
Netherlands,
Pablo Picasso.
Still Life with
Liqueur Bottle
(summer 1909).
Oil on canvas. MOMA.
Postcard sent by
Picasso and
Fernande from
Barcelona, May
1909.
Pablo Picasso. Factory at Horta de Ebro, (Brick Factory at Tortosa),
oil on canvas. 50.7 x 60.2 cm,
(summer 1909), Oil on canvas, The State Hermitage Museum.
Photo taken by
Picasso of Horta
de Ebro, 1909
Pablo Picasso. Houses on the Hill, Horta de Ebro,
(summer 1909), Oil on canvas, Private Collection.
Photo of Horta taken by
Picasso
Pablo Picasso, The Reservoir, Horta de Ebro,
Horta de San Joan in Spain, summer 1909
Oil on canvas, 24 1/8 x 20 1/8″ (61.5 x 51.1
cm), MoMA.
Photo of Le
Sacré-Coeur.
George Braque, Le Sacré-Coeur (winter 1909),
Oil on canvas, 55 x 40.5 cm, Lille Métropole
Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider
Art (LaM), Lille, France.
Georges Braque. Violin and Palette
(autumn 1909). Oil on canvas. Guggenheim, NY.
Phases of Cubism
Georges Braque, Still Life with
Mandola and Metronome (autumn
1909), Oil on canvas, MET.
• Cubism had two distinct phases:
Analytic and Synthetic.
• The early phase which lasted
until about 1912 was called
Analytical Cubism. Here the
artist analyzed the subject from
many different viewpoints
(simultaneity) and reconstructed
it within a geometric framework,
the overall effect of which was
to create an image that evoked a
sense of the subject.
• These fragmented images were
unified by the use of a subdued
and limited palette of colors.
Fernande Olivier
Pablo Picasso. Seated Woman
(summer 1909). Oil on canvas. MET.
Georges Braque. Mandola
(winter 1909-10). Oil on
canvas. Tate Modern.
Camille Corot. Gypsy
Girl with Mandolin
(1874). Oil on canvas.
Pablo Picasso. Girl with a
Mandolin (Fanny Tellier),
spring 1910. Oil on canvas.
Projections on a plane of
views of the sixteen
fundamental octahedrons
Pablo Picasso. Woman with a
Mandolin (spring 1910). Oil on
canvas.
Projections on a plane of
sixteen fundamental
octahedrons
Pablo Picasso. Buffalo Bill
(spring 1911). Oil on canvas.
Wilhelm Uhde (photo).
Pablo Picasso. Portrait of
Wilhelm Uhde
(spring-autumn 1910).
Oil on canvas.
Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler
(photo).
Pablo Picasso. Portrait of
Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler
(autumn-winter 1910). Oil
on canvas. Art Institute of Chicago.
Ambroise Vollard
(photo).
Pablo Picasso. Portrait of
Ambroise Vollard (springAutumn 1910). Oil on canvas.
Pushkine MFA, Moscow.
Paul Cézanne.
Portrait of
Ambroise Vollard (1899).
The Cubist Vision
Pablo Picasso
The Accordionist
Summer 1911
oil on canvas
51 x 35 in., Guggenheim.
• The Cubists proposed
that your sight of an
object is the sum of
many different views
• Your memory of an
object is not constructed
from one angle, as in
perspective, but from
many angles selected by
your sight and
movement.
• Cubist painting,
paradoxically abstract in
form, was an attempt at
a more realistic way of
seeing.
Georges Braque
The Portuguese
1911
oil on canvas
3 ft. 10 1/8 in. x 2 ft. 8 in.
Eva Gouel (Marcelle
Humbert), photo.
Pablo Picasso, “Ma Jolie”
(Woman with a Zither or
Guitar), winter 1911-12,
Oil on canvas, 39 3/8 x 25 3/4 in., MoMa
My pretty girl refers to the title of a popular song and
to his mistress
at the time.
Georges Braque
The Violin : Mozart Kubelick Poster, spring
1912, oil on canvas, 18 1/8 x 24 in. (45.7 ×
61 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pablo Picasso, Guitar and Violin, ca. 1912, oil
on canvas, 65,5×54,3 cm, The State Hermitage
Museum, St.Petersburg.
Cubism
Late Analytical Cubism.
Colour palette differs from
Analytical Cubism per se. Notice the
addition of deep green, blue and orange.
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