1.Complete the Internet/Excel Exercises on page 62 of the textbook. Complete Problems: 1,2,3.You can use other online resources just remember to state them. These should include the most recent information you find and summarized in your own words. # total of 250 words use your own words,this will go through turnitin.2,Online Articles on Page 94 complete any 5 of 10 listed. Include any related current events and provide links and most important discuss your opinions. 250words
4. Complete the following two essays to complete. The length of each essay should be one side of one page. Remember to provide examples and your own opinions. A.Exchange Rates- currencies are important to an MNC corporation earnings. What do you feel about the global foreign exchange market? Pick a county and briefly discuss its performance of its currency in relation to the USA dollar. #250wordsB.Should a country (choose any outside the US) be forced to alter the value of its currency? Revaluation – is to Appreciate and/or Devaluation –is to Depreciate its currency and why? Give your own example of when and why or why not a country should alter its currency?#250 wordsAll question must use APA FORMAT
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Direct Exchange Rates
over Time
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Continued on Inside Back Cover
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International Financial
Management
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Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
International Financial
Management
13th Edition
Jeff Madura
Florida Atlantic University
Australia • Brazil • Mexico • Singapore • United Kingdom • United States
Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
International Financial Management,
13th Edition
Jeff Madura
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Dedicated to my mother Irene
Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
Brief Contents
PART 1: The International Financial Environment
1
2
3
4
5
Multinational Financial Management: An Overview
International Flow of Funds 33
International Financial Markets 63
Exchange Rate Determination 103
Currency Derivatives 131
PART 2: Exchange Rate Behavior
6
7
8
3
185
Government Influence on Exchange Rates 187
International Arbitrage and Interest Rate Parity 227
Relationships among Inflation, Interest Rates, and Exchange Rates
PART 3: Exchange Rate Risk Management
9
10
11
12
1
295
Forecasting Exchange Rates 297
Measuring Exposure to Exchange Rate Fluctuations 325
Managing Transaction Exposure 355
Managing Economic Exposure and Translation Exposure 393
PART 4: Long-Term Asset and Liability Management
13
14
15
16
17
18
257
415
Direct Foreign Investment 417
Multinational Capital Budgeting 437
International Corporate Governance and Control 477
Country Risk Analysis 503
Multinational Capital Structure and Cost of Capital 527
Long-Term Debt Financing 551
PART 5: Short-Term Asset and Liability Management
575
19 Financing International Trade 577
20 Short-Term Financing 595
21 International Cash Management 611
Appendix A: Answers to Self-Test Questions 643
Appendix B: Supplemental Cases 656
Appendix C: Using Excel to Conduct Analysis 676
Appendix D: International Investing Project 684
Appendix E: Discussion in the Boardroom 687
Appendix F: Use of Bitcoin to Conduct International Transactions
Glossary 697
Index 705
695
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vii
Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
Contents
Preface, xix
About the Author, xxvi
PART 1: The International Financial Environment
1
1: MULTINATIONAL FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW
3
1-1 Managing the MNC, 4
1-1a How Business Disciplines Are Used to Manage the MNC, 4
1-1b Agency Problems, 4
1-1c Management Structure of an MNC, 6
1-2 Why MNCs Pursue International Business, 8
1-2a Theory of Comparative Advantage, 8
1-2b Imperfect Markets Theory, 8
1-2c Product Cycle Theory, 9
1-3 Methods to Conduct International Business, 10
1-3a International Trade, 10
1-3b Licensing, 10
1-3c Franchising, 11
1-3d Joint Ventures, 11
1-3e Acquisitions of Existing Operations, 11
1-3f Establishment of New Foreign Subsidiaries, 12
1-3g Summary of Methods, 12
1-4 Valuation Model for an MNC, 13
1-4a Domestic Model, 14
1-4b Multinational Model, 14
1-4c Uncertainty Surrounding an MNC’s Cash Flows, 17
1-4d Summary of International Effects, 20
1-4e How Uncertainty Affects the MNC’s Cost of Capital, 21
1-5 Organization of the Text, 21
2: INTERNATIONAL FLOW OF FUNDS
33
2-1 Balance of Payments, 33
2-1a Current Account, 33
2-1b Financial Account, 35
2-1c Capital Account, 36
2-1d Relationship between the Accounts, 37
2-2 Growth in International Trade, 37
2-2a Events That Increased Trade Volume, 37
2-2b Impact of Outsourcing on Trade, 39
2-2c Trade Volume among Countries, 40
2-2d Trend in U.S. Balance of Trade, 42
2-3 Factors Affecting International Trade Flows, 43
2-3a Cost of Labor, 43
Copyright 2018 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
ix
x
Contents
2-3b Inflation, 44
2-3c National Income, 44
2-3d Credit Conditions, 44
2-3e Government Policies, 44
2-3f Exchange Rates, 48
2-4 International Capital Flows, 52
2-4a Factors Affecting Direct Foreign Investment, 52
2-4b Factors Affecting International Portfolio Investment, 53
2-4c Impact of International Capital Flows, 53
2-5 Agencies That Facilitate International Flows, 55
2-5a International Monetary Fund, 55
2-5b World Bank, 56
2-5c World Trade Organization, 57
2-5d International Finance Corporation, 57
2-5e International Development Association, 57
2-5f Bank for International Settlements, 57
2-5g OECD, 58
2-5h Regional Development Agencies, 58
3: INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKETS
63
3-1 Foreign Exchange Market, 63
3-1a History of Foreign Exchange, 63
3-1b Foreign Exchange Transactions, 64
3-1c Foreign Exchange Quotations, 70
3-1d Derivative Contracts in the Foreign Exchange Market, 74
3-2 International Money Market, 75
3-2a European and Asian Money Markets, 76
3-2b Money Market Interest Rates among Currencies, 76
3-2c Risk of International Money Market Securities, 77
3-3 International Credit Market, 78
3-3a Syndicated Loans in the Credit Market, 78
3-3b Bank Regulations in the Credit Market, 79
3-3c Impact of the Credit Crisis, 79
3-4 International Bond Market, 80
3-4a Eurobond Market, 80
3-4b Development of Other Bond Markets, 81
3-4c Risk of International Bonds, 81
3-4d Impact of the Greece Crisis, 82
3-5 International Stock Markets, 83
3-5a Issuance of Stock in Foreign Markets, 83
3-5b Issuance of Foreign Stock in the United States, 84
3-5c Comparing the Size among Stock Markets, 85
3-5d How Governance Varies among Stock Markets, 86
3-5e Integration of International Stock Markets and Credit Markets, 87
3-6 How Financial Markets Serve MNCs, 88
Appendix 3: Investing in International Financial Markets, 95
4: EXCHANGE RATE DETERMINATION
4-1 Measuring Exchange Rate Movements, 103
4-2 Exchange Rate Equilibrium, 104
4-2a Demand for a Currency, 105
4-2b Supply of a Currency for Sale, 106
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103
Contents
xi
4-2c Equilibrium Exchange Rate, 106
4-2d Change in the Equilibrium Exchange Rate, 107
4-3 Factors That Influence Exchange Rates, 108
4-3a Relative Inflation Rates, 109
4-3b Relative Interest Rates, 110
4-3c Relative Income Levels, 111
4-3d Government Controls, 112
4-3e Expectations, 112
4-3f Interaction of Factors, 114
4-3g Influence of Factors across Multiple Currency Markets, 115
4-3h Impact of Liquidity on Exchange Rate Adjustments, 116
4-4 Movements in Cross Exchange Rates, 116
4-5 Capitalizing on Expected Exchange Rate Movements, 117
4-5a Institutional Speculation Based on Expected Appreciation, 118
4-5b Institutional Speculation Based on Expected Depreciation, 119
4-5c Speculation by Individuals, 120
4-5d The “Carry Trade”, 120
5: CURRENCY DERIVATIVES
5-1 Forward Market, 131
5-1a How MNCs Use Forward Contracts, 131
5-1b Bank Quotations on Forward Rates, 132
5-1c Premium or Discount on the Forward Rate, 133
5-1d Movements in the Forward Rate over Time, 134
5-1e Offsetting a Forward Contract, 134
5-1f Using Forward Contracts for Swap Transactions, 135
5-1g Non-Deliverable Forward Contracts, 135
5-2 Currency Futures Market, 136
5-2a Contract Specifications, 136
5-2b Trading Currency Futures, 137
5-2c Credit Risk of Currency Futures Contracts, 138
5-2d Comparing Currency Futures and Forward Contracts, 138
5-2e How MNCs Use Currency Futures, 139
5-2f Speculation with Currency Futures, 141
5-3 Currency Options Market, 142
5-3a Currency Options Exchanges, 142
5-3b Over-the-Counter Currency Options Market, 142
5-4 Currency Call Options, 142
5-4a Factors Affecting Currency Call Option Premiums, 143
5-4b How MNCs Use Currency Call Options, 144
5-4c Speculating with Currency Call Options, 145
5-5 Currency Put Options, 148
5-5a Factors Affecting Currency Put Option Premiums, 149
5-5b How MNCs Use Currency Put Options, 149
5-5c Speculating with Currency Put Options, 150
5-6 Other Forms of Currency Options, 152
5-6a Conditional Currency Options, 152
5-6b European Currency Options, 154
Appendix 5A: Currency Option Pricing, 165
Appendix 5B: Currency Option Combinations, 169
Part 1 Integrative Problem: The International Financial Environment, 183
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131
xii
Contents
PART 2: Exchange Rate Behavior
185
6: GOVERNMENT INFLUENCE ON EXCHANGE RATES
187
6-1 Exchange Rate Systems, 187
6-1a Fixed Exchange Rate System, 187
6-1b Freely Floating Exchange Rate System, 189
6-1c Managed Float Exchange Rate System, 190
6-1d Pegged Exchange Rate System, 191
6-1e Dollarization, 197
6-1f Black Markets for Currencies, 197
6-2 A Single European Currency, 198
6-2a Monetary Policy in the Eurozone, 198
6-2b Impact on Firms in the Eurozone, 199
6-2c Impact on Financial Flows in the Eurozone, 199
6-2d Impact of Eurozone Country Crisis on Other Eurozone Countries, 199
6-2e Impact of a Country Abandoning the Euro, 202
6-3 Direct Intervention, 203
6-3a Reasons for Direct Intervention, 203
6-3b The Direct Intervention Process, 204
6-3c Direct Intervention as a Policy Tool, 207
6-3d Speculating on Direct Intervention, 208
6-4 Indirect Intervention, 209
6-4a Government Control of Interest Rates, 209
6-4b Government Use of Foreign Exchange Controls, 210
Appendix 6: Government Intervention during the Asian Crisis, 218
7: INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAGE AND INTEREST RATE PARITY
7-1 Locational Arbitrage, 227
7-1a Gains from Locational Arbitrage, 228
7-1b Realignment due to Locational Arbitrage, 228
7-2 Triangular Arbitrage, 229
7-2a Gains from Triangular Arbitrage, 230
7-2b Realignment due to Triangular Arbitrage, 232
7-3 Covered Interest Arbitrage, 232
7-3a Covered Interest Arbitrage Process, 232
7-3b Realignment due to Covered Interest Arbitrage, 234
7-3c Arbitrage Example When Accounting for Spreads, 235
7-3d Covered Interest Arbitrage by Non-U.S. Investors, 236
7-3e Comparing Different Types of Arbitrage, 236
7-4 Interest Rate Parity (IRP), 236
7-4a Derivation of Interest Rate Parity, 237
7-4b Determining the Forward Premium, 238
7-4c Graphic Analysis of Interest Rate Parity, 240
7-4d How to Test Whether Interest Rate Parity Holds, 242
7-4e Does Interest Rate Parity Hold?, 242
7-4f Considerations When Assessing Interest Rate Parity, 243
7-5 Variation in Forward Premiums, 244
7-5a Forward Premiums across Maturities, 244
7-5b Changes in Forward Premiums over Time, 245
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227
Contents
8: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG INFLATION, INTEREST RATES,
AND EXCHANGE RATES
xiii
257
8-1 Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), 257
8-1a Interpretations of Purchasing Power Parity, 257
8-1b Rationale behind Relative PPP Theory, 258
8-1c Derivation of Purchasing Power Parity, 258
8-1d Using PPP to Estimate Exchange Rate Effects, 259
8-1e Graphic Analysis of Purchasing Power Parity, 260
8-1f Testing the Purchasing Power Parity Theory, 263
8-1g Does Purchasing Power Parity Exist?, 265
8-2 International Fisher Effect (IFE), 266
8-2a Deriving a Country’s Expected Inflation Rate, 266
8-2b Estimating the Expected Exchange Rate Movement, 267
8-2c Implications of the International Fisher Effect, 267
8-2d Derivation of the International Fisher Effect, 270
8-2e Graphic Analysis of the International Fisher Effect, 272
8-2f Testing the International Fisher Effect, 273
8-2g Limitations of the IFE Theory, 274
8-2h IFE Theory versus Reality, 275
8-2i Comparison of IRP, PPP, and IFE Theories, 275
Part 2 Integrative Problem: Exchange Rate Behavior, 286
Midterm Self-Exam, 287
PART 3: Exchange Rate Risk Management
295
9: FORECASTING EXCHANGE RATES
297
9-1 Why Firms Forecast Exchange Rates, 297
9-2 Forecasting Techniques, 299
9-2a Technical Forecasting, 299
9-2b Fundamental Forecasting, 299
9-2c Market-Based Forecasting, 303
9-2d Mixed Forecasting, 306
9-3 Assessment of Forecast Performance, 307
9-3a Measurement of Forecast Error, 307
9-3b Forecast Errors among Time Horizons, 308
9-3c Forecast Errors over Time Periods, 308
9-3d Forecast Errors among Currencies, 308
9-3e Comparing Forecast Errors among Forecast Techniques, 309
9-3f Graphic Evaluation of Forecast Bias, 309
9-3g Statistical Test of Forecast Bias, 311
9-3h Shifts in Forecast Bias over Time, 312
9-4 Accounting for Uncertainty Surrounding Forecasts, 312
9-4a Sensitivity Analysis Applied to Fundamental Forecasting, 313
9-4b Interval Forecasts, 313
10: MEASURING EXPOSURE TO EXCHANGE RATE FLUCTUATIONS
10-1 Relevance of Exchange Rate Risk, 325
10-2 Transaction Exposure, 326
10-2a Estimating “Net” Cash Flows in Each Currency, 328
10-2b Transaction Exposure of an MNC’s Portfolio, 329
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325
xiv
Contents
10-2c Transaction Exposure Based on Value at Risk, 332
10-3 Economic Exposure, 335
10-3a Exposure to Foreign Currency Depreciation, 336
10-3b Exposure to Foreign Currency Appreciation, 337
10-3c Measuring Economic Exposure, 337
10-4 Translation Exposure, 340
10-4a Determinants of Translation Exposure, 340
10-4b Exposure of an MNC’s Stock Price to Translation Effects, 342
11: MANAGING TRANSACTION EXPOSURE
355
11-1 Policies for Hedging Transaction Exposure, 355
11-1a Hedging Most of the Exposure, 355
11-1b Selective Hedging, 355
11-2 Hedging Exposure to Payables, 356
11-2a Forward or Futures Hedge on Payables, 356
11-2b Money Market Hedge on Payables, 357
11-2c Call Option Hedge on Payables, 357
11-2d Comparison of Techniques for Hedging Payables, 360
11-2e Evaluating Past Decisions on Hedging Payables, 363
11-3 Hedging Exposure to Receivables, 363
11-3a Forward or Futures Hedge on Receivables, 363
11-3b Money Market Hedge on Receivables, 364
11-3c Put Option Hedge on Receivables, 364
11-3d Comparison of Techniques for Hedging Receivables, 367
11-3e Evaluating Past Decisions on Hedging Receivables, 370
11-3f Summary of Hedging Techniques, 370
11-4 Limitations of Hedging, 371
11-4a Limitation of Hedging an Uncertain Payment, 371
11-4b Limitation of Repeated Short-Term Hedging, 371
11-5 Alternative Methods to Reduce Exchange Rate Risk, 373
11-5a Leading and Lagging, 374
11-5b Cross-Hedging, 374
11-5c Currency Diversification, 374
Appendix 11: Nontraditional Hedging Techniques, 388
12: MANAGING ECONOMIC EXPOSURE AND TRANSLATION
EXPOSURE
12-1 Managing Economic Exposure, 393
12-1a Assessing Economic Exposure, 394
12-1b Restructuring to Reduce Economic Exposure, 395
12-1c Limitations of Restructuring Intended to Reduce Economic Exposure, 398
12-2 A Case Study on Hedging Economic Exposure, 398
12-2a Savor Co.’s Assessment of Economic Exposure, 398
12-2b Possible Strategies for Hedging Economic Exposure, 400
12-3 Managing Exposure to Fixed Assets, 401
12-4 Managing Translation Exposure, 402
12-4a Hedging Translation Exposure with Forward Contracts, 403
12-4b Limitations of Hedging Translation Exposure, 403
Part 3 Integrative Problem: Exchange Risk Management, 412
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393
Contents
xv
PART 4: Long-Term Asset and Liability Management
415
13: DIRECT FOREIGN INVESTMENT
417
13-1 Motives for Direct Foreign Investment, 417
13-1a Revenue-Related Motives, 417
13-1b Cost-Related Motives, 418
13-1c Comparing Benefits of DFI among Countries, 420
13-2 Benefits of International Diversification, 421
13-2a Diversification Analysis of International Projects, 422
13-2b Diversification among Countries, 424
13-3 Host Government Impact on DFI, 424
13-3a Incentives to Encourage DFI, 425
13-3b Barriers to DFI, 425
13-4 Assessing Potential DFI, 427
13-4a A Case Study of Assessing Potential DFI, 427
13-4b Evaluating DFI Opportunities That Pass the First Screen, 429
14: MULTINATIONAL CAPITAL BUDGETING
437
14-1 Subsidiary versus Parent Perspective, 437
14-1a Tax Differentials, 437
14-1b Restrictions on Remitted …
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