– Answer position paper question B- Input key words from review sheet (Kant TQRS) – Read the attached short reading (11pages) and implement in the paper
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1. What are laws of nature?
Those laws according to which everything does happen.
2. What are laws of freedom/moral philosophy/ laws of morality?
Those laws according to which everything ought to happen and any investigation
of these will also consider the conditions where what ought to happen doesn’t.
3. A priori
-Literally “prior to”; that which, prior to any and all experience, provides the conditions
for experience to be possible.
-literally after the fact; that which is based on experience alone
4. Pure Philosophy
-Philosophy that is argued entirely on a priori principles
-Philosophy that is argued entirely from experience
-pure philosophy’s arguments are necessarily philosophy’s argument are
5. Practical Rule
-A precept that is founded on experience. I.E-> An empirical foundation, which might
even be universal but cannot denote obligation with necessity.
-Philosophy that is grounded entirely on a priori principle and concerns particular
objects of understanding.
-The complete and total satisfaction of both one’s need and inclination
(see K393, 394, 399, 405, 418).
8. Role of reason in action
-To guide and direct the will to act from duty from duty rather than inclination and to
establish a good will.
9. Duty- 3rd Prop Tool
-The objective necessity of an action which results from a rational being and respect for
the moral law.(see K400)
10. Maxim (I400n13, I435)
-A subjective rule. I.E-> My personal rule or norm for my will based on experience and
preferences. Can be good or bad based on relation to duty.
11. What gives an action moral worth?
The “value” of an action done from the good will. I.E with duty as my focus even
when there’s conflict with my inclinations
-The recognition of the authority of reason.
-I.E→ Subordination of my will to the moral Law imposed on me by reason and
rationality(by my own nature as a rational being) Which ought to result in the immediate
determinant of my will by the moral Law because this law represents a higher worth
than just my selfish wants. The object of respect is the moral law (K401n14)
13. What are the four “cases” from the first section? What is the ONLY point of
the four cases?
1.) The case of an action that conflicts with duty
2.) The case of an action in accord with duty, also with immediate inclination
3.) The case of an action is done from duty alone. I.E→ It has duty as its sole
4.) (NOT SURE) Done by other reasons than from duty
14. What are the three propositions of morality?
An action must be done from duty in order to have any moral worth
An action has its moral worth in the maxim according to which the action is
(Duty)- The objective necessity of an action which results from a rational beings
respect for the moral law
15. What is THE categorical imperative? What is the supreme principle of
THE categorical imperative is the command that represents the objective
necessity of an action without reference to any other end.
The supreme principle of morality is
16. What are the hypothetical imperatives? How do these differ from THE
Those commands which represent the practical necessity of a possible course of
action as a means for attaining something else I want
There is only one categorical imperative and the hypothetical imperatives are
unlimited, with subjective ends, and have empirical grounds not pure.
17. What is the formula of universal law?
-see 421, 437, 440
-Act only according to that maxim that I can at the at the same time will to be a
18. What is the formula of humanity as an end in itself?
I ought to act only according to that maxim which treats humanity, whether in the
person of myself or another, as an end and never simply as a means to a further
19. What is the formula of the kingdom of ends?
I ought to act only according to that maxim which would not contradict the
universal legislation of myself or other rational beings in a possible(not actual)
kingdom of ends.
20. What is the kingdom of ends?
A merely possible systematic union of rational beings through common objective
21. Why is the categorical imperative not reducible to the “golden rule”
-because the golden rule requires me to have experience, it is empirically based, and
cannot be necessarily or universal for a rational being.
22. What is the difference between an autonomous and a heteronomous will?
An autonomous will is not determined(directed) by reason, but a heteronomous
will is determined by desire for a particular object or end outside of itself.
23. What is dignity and what/who has it?
The unconditional and incomparable worth belonging to a rational being as a
legislator of the universal law to which she is subject.
24. What is the will?
The ability of a rational being to act according to her own conception of laws.
I.E→ According to principles
25. What is the actual definition of the good will?
The will whose maxim, when made into a universal law, can never conflict with
26. What is autonomy?
The idea of the will of every rational being as a will that legislates universal law.
27. What is morality?
Relation of action to the autonomy of the will
28. What is ethics?
A science that teaches how I become worthy of happiness
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