[5.1] Special Needs DiscussionFrom your readings and discussions, what are other issues or special needs for those currently serving in the military or those that may have served? Consider the numerous issues that veterans may encounter after service and also all ages. (Note: veterans can be from eighteen to over ninety years of age). Explain the reasoning behind your response.250 words with references and citationsMilitary Suicide Research Consortium. (2012). DOD, VA Partner to Help Prevent Suicide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved from https://msrc.fsu.edu/news/dod-va-partner-help-prev…Parrish, K. (2012). DOD: Families, friends need to recognize signs of potential suicide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved from http://www.nationalguard.mil/News/ArticleView/tabid/5563/Article/574987/dod-families-friends- need-to-recognize-signs-of-potential-suicide.aspxHudenko, W., Homaifar, B., & Wortzel, H. (n.d.). The Relationship Between PTSD and Suicide (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/treat/cooccur…Rapaport, L. (2015). Military suicides aren’t linked to deployment, study finds (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/04/01/military-…House Committee on Veterans’ Affairs. (2013). Witness Testimony of Michael Shepherd M.D, Physician, Office of Health Care Inspections Office of the Inspector General U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved from https://archives-veterans.house.gov/witness-testim…
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The
Tongue and Quill
AFH 33-337
27 May 2015
Air Force Core Values
Integrity First, Service Before Self, and Excellence in All We Do.
Acknowledgement
The Tongue and Quill has been a valued Air Force resource for decades and many Airmen from
our Total Force of uniformed and civilian members have contributed their talents to various
editions over the years. This revision is built upon the foundation of governing directives and
user’s inputs from the unit level all the way up to Headquarters Air Force. A small team of Total
Force Airmen from the Air University, the United States Air Force Academy, Headquarters Air
Education and Training Command (AETC), the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC), Air
National Guard (ANG), and Headquarters Air Force compiled inputs from the field and rebuilt
The Tongue and Quill to meet the needs of today’s Airmen. The team put many hours into this
effort over a span of almost two years to improve the content, relevance, and organization of
material throughout this handbook. As the final files go to press it is the desire of The Tongue
and Quill team to say thank you to every Airman who assisted in making this edition better; you
have our sincere appreciation!
–The Tongue and Quill Team
BY ORDER OF THE
AIR FORCE HANDBOOK 33-337
SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE
27 MAY 2015
Communications and Information
THE TONGUE AND QUILL
ACCESSIBILITY: Publications and forms are available for downloading or ordering on the
e-Publishing website at http://www.e-publishing.af.mil.
RELEASABILITY: There are no releasability restrictions on this publication.
OPR: SAF/CIO A6SS
Supersedes: AFH33-337, 1 August 2004
Certified by: SAF/CIO A6SS
(Col Heather L. McGee)
Pages: 378
The men and women of the United States Air Force must communicate clearly and effectively to
carry out our missions. Although we live in an era of rapid personal and mass communication
that was barely imagined just a few years ago, our Air Force still requires face-to-face briefings,
background papers, and staff packages to keep the mission moving forward. This handbook,
together with Air Force Manual (AFMAN) 33-326, Preparing Official Communications,
provides the information to ensure clear communications—written or spoken.
Send recommended changes or comments using AF Form 847, Recommendation for Change of
Publication, to the Air Force Cyberspace Strategy & Policy Division (SAF/CIO A6SS) at
USAF.pentagon.saf-cio-a6.mbx.a6ss-workflow@mail.mil. Ensure that all records created as a
result of processes prescribed in this publication are maintained IAW AFMAN 33-363,
Management of Records, and disposed of IAW the Air Force Records Disposition Schedule
(RDS) in the Air Force Records Information Management System (AFRIMS). The use of the
name or mark of any specific manufacturer, commercial product, commodity, or service in this
publication does not imply endorsement by the Air Force.
SUMMARY OF REVISIONS
This edition has been substantially revised to 1) standardize the format and layout for readability;
2) improve the organization of chapters and content within each chapter; 3) provide additional
material on preparing to write and speak, writing with focus, communicating to persuade,
research, meetings, briefings and listening; 4) clarify guidance for Air Force written products
with formatted examples for each product; 5) add information on Air Force written products such
as awards, decorations and performance reports; and 6) update guidance for electronic
communications.
The Tongue and Quill
AFH 33-337, 27 MAY 2015
Table of Contents
PART I: COMMUNICATION BASICS ……………………………………………………………………….. 1
Plain Language Requirement: It’s the Law ………………………………………………………………………………… 2
Plain Language in the Air Force: Be Clear, Concise and Specific ………………………………………………… 2
CHAPTER 1: A Basic Philosophy of Communication ……………………………………………………. 3
What Do We Mean by Communication? ……………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Communication, Teamwork and Leadership……………………………………………………………………………….. 5
Principles of Effective Communication ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5
CHAPTER 2: Seven Steps to Effective Communication (Overview) ………………………………. 8
Preparing to Write and Speak (Steps 1-4) …………………………………………………………………………………… 9
Drafting, Editing, and Feedback (Steps 5-7) ……………………………………………………………………………… 11
Seven Steps to Effective Communication: Quick Reference List ………………………………………………… 13
PART II: PREPARING TO WRITE AND SPEAK ……………………………………………………… 14
CHAPTER 3: Step 1 (Analyze Purpose and Audience) ………………………………………………… 15
Key Questions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
What Is My Purpose? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Drafting a Purpose Statement ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17
Analyzing Purpose: Other Issues …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
Audience Analysis: The Human Factor……………………………………………………………………………………. 18
Tips For Success ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20
CHAPTER 4: Step 2 (Research Your Topic) ……………………………………………………………….. 23
Start Smart ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
Getting Data………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
Search Engines and Databases ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
Evaluate Your Sources …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30
Useful Online Resources ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
CHAPTER 5: Step 3 (Support Your Ideas) …………………………………………………………………. 41
The Logic of Arguments: Fundamentals ………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
Evidence: Proving Your Point ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Characteristics of Good Supporting Evidence……………………………………………………………………………. 45
Logical Errors: Flawed Arguments …………………………………………………………………………………………. 46
Arguments, Truth and Persuasion ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
CHAPTER 6: Step 4 (Organize and Outline) ………………………………………………………………. 53
Organizing: Finalizing Your Purpose Statement and Bottom Line ………………………………………………. 54
The Outline: Why Do I Need One? …………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
Outlining the Body: Pick a Pattern ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 59
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The Tongue and Quill
AFH 33-337, 27 MAY 2015
PART III: WRITING WITH FOCUS …………………………………………………………………………. 63
CHAPTER 7: Step 5 (Draft) ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 65
Drafting: Basic Philosophy…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66
Drafting Effective Paragraphs …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69
Drafting Effective Sentences …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73
Overcoming Writer’s Block ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 90
CHAPTER 8: Step 6 (Edit) …………………………………………………………………………………………. 91
Editing vs. Feedback ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 92
Editing Fundamentals …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 92
Editing Efficiently: A Three-Step Approach …………………………………………………………………………….. 93
Drafting Basics: Did You Apply Them? ………………………………………………………………………………….. 96
Common Grammar Traps ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 97
Common Writing Errors ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 101
CHAPTER 9: Step 7 (Fight for Feedback and Get Approval) ……………………………………. 103
Fighting For Feedback ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 104
Getting Approval: Staff Coordination ……………………………………………………………………………………. 106
PART IV: FACE-TO-FACE COMMUNICATION ……………………………………………………. 110
CHAPTER 10: Air Force Speaking …………………………………………………………………………… 111
Verbal Communication ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
Non-Verbal Communication …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 113
Overcoming Anxiety: Some Simple Steps ……………………………………………………………………………… 114
Common Nonverbal Quirks ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
Delivery Formats: Impromptu, Prepared and Manuscript …………………………………………………………. 115
Preparing Your Slides…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118
CHAPTER 11: Effective Listening Strategies …………………………………………………………….. 123
Understanding Hearing and Listening …………………………………………………………………………………….. 124
Informative, Critical and Empathic Listening ………………………………………………………………………….. 125
Better Listening …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
Overcoming Barriers to Listening ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 130
PART V: WORKPLACE CHALLENGES ………………………………………………………………… 133
CHAPTER 12: Electronic Communications and Social Media …………………………………… 134
Electronic Mail (E-Mail) ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 135
Social Media ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
Instant Messaging (IM) and Texting ………………………………………………………………………………………. 147
Telephones, Voice Mail and Fax ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 149
Electronic Communications Glossary …………………………………………………………………………………….. 152
– iii –
The Tongue and Quill
AFH 337, 27 MAY 2015
CHAPTER 13: Meetings …………………………………………………………………………………………… 155
Planning an Effective Meeting ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
Running Your Meeting …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
Group Dynamics and Fun ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
PART VI: DOCUMENT STANDARDS …………………………………………………………………….. 163
CHAPTER 14: The Official Memorandum ……………………………………………………………….. 165
The Heading Section ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 166
The Text of the Official Memorandum …………………………………………………………………………………… 171
The Closing Section …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 171
Additional Information …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 175
Attachments ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 176
The Official Memorandum: Examples …………………………………………………………………………………… 179
Spelling Checkers: Before You Sign ……………………………………………………………………………………… 192
CHAPTER 15 The Personal Letter ……………………………………………………………………………. 193
The Heading Section ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 194
The Text of the Personal Letter ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 195
The Closing Section …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 195
Forms of Address, Salutation and Complimentary Close ………………………………………………………….. 196
Military Ranks and Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………………………….. 213
The Personal Letter: Examples ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 215
CHAPTER 16: Air Force “Papers” …………………………………………………………………………… 221
Form and Function ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 221
Point Paper …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 224
Talking Paper ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
Bullet Background Paper ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 226
Background Paper ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 228
Position Paper …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230
CHAPTER 17: The Staff Study …………………………………………………………………………………. 231
Purpose ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 231
Process: Critical Thinking and Problem Solving……………………………………………………………………… 232
Writing the Report ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 234
Complete the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 237
CHAPTER 18: The Staff Package……………………………………………………………………………… 239
SSS Fundamentals ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240
Completing the SSS Form …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 240
Assembling the Package ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 243
Coordinating the Package ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 244
Sample SSS and eSSS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 245
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The Tongue and Quill
AFH 33-337, 27 MAY 2015
CHAPTER 19: Writing Better Bullet Statements ………………………………………………………. 249
Getting Started …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 250
Drafting Accomplishment-Impact Bullet Statements………………………………………………………………… 250
Polishing Accomplishment-Impact Bullet Statements ………………………………………………………………. 255
Bullet Statement Mechanics ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 258
CHAPTER 20: The Official Biography ……………………………………………………………………… 259
The Official Biography: Fundamentals ………………………………………………………………………………….. 259
Getting Started …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 260
Associated Press (AP) Style Guidance for Official Biographies…………………………………………………. 260
Official Biogra …
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