1400 words APA style with references. please see attached instructionsStudents will explore a cultural sport production (sport/game/human movement) of a nation linked to the students’ personal ethnicities and histories. Students will develop: 1) overview of national history, 2) overview the rules of the sport/game and its historical importance, 3) overview of the cultural importance of the sport, 4) overview expressions of cultural values in sport/game/human movement, 5) explore how this cultural product has influenced their personal/familial sport experiences and sport identities, and 6) its relation to and impact on US sport/games/human movement the time period of your sport life your narrative will cover: 19th century (OR WHATEVER CENTURY) the sports you will discuss: martial arts the theories you will use: Interactionist theory, critical theory the country where this sport was developed: China why you chose it: China is my hometown and Wu-Shu was one of the well-known sports in China. 1 academic ref you will Use: https://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/kungfu/history.htm (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. PAPER STRUCTURE Introduction (1/2-1 pg) Optional – cite an interesting quote Intro sentences to topic and paper Statement of purpose (what you will write about and discuss do in the paper) Goals of paper Definition of terms if applicable (Stress, racism, sexism, ageism, etc…whichever terms you will be using in your paper and fit into the experiences you are discussing in the paper Layout structure and organization of paper information 2. Overview the Nation (1/2 – 1 pg) Brief history, overview of larger cultural values and sport history 3. Overview the Sport (1/2 – 1 pg) Rules, history, organizations 4. Expressions of Cultural Values (1 page) Describe and analyze the sport (this could be a specific situation, or many situations related to identities: race, sexual orientation, ageism, disability, ethnicity, occupational, religion, and/or class) Sociocultural influences Relate to journal articles, which discuss/relate/contradict in some fashion, the general nature the sport experience(s) 5. Relationship to Personal Cultural Background (1 pg) Describe the situation(s) or experience(s) – yet focus on larger issues and context – less play-by-play Explore values expressed in that sport and your family, person, and sporting choices How the values of that sport have affected you Compare and contrast your experiences and understandings of sport with research, class text, larger popular cultural occurrences 6. Summary/Conclusion (1 pg) Summarize the main content of paper Wrap up main themes of paper Suggest possible intervention(s) and/or social actions re-Reference any journal materials Final thoughts and looking forward Critical Sport Autobiography Cultural Sport Narrative Paper Outline 4 – 6 pages of text (around 1400 words), NOT including title and reference pages Reference min. of 5 journal, peer-reviewed articles – the more the better (max of 1 can be used from class reader) See webct and class reader for examples of peer review journal articles and how to cite 10 or 12 pt. font, APA style, black ink, times new roman font style, white paper, indent new paragraphs, use paragraph breaks APA is written in past tense whenever possible (e.g. The purpose of this paper was ….The goal of this paper was…) Need to have in-text citations for any material noted on the reference page Double space lines of text Inside the paper – main section titles are good for organization (e.g. section title…Personal Sport Journey: Navigating Bi-culturalism in Youth Sport) Brief, clear, and concise writing; write with academic, formal voice No more than 3 direct referenced quotes in paper if possible Read and follow in detail the paper guidelines; see grading rubric for specifics; see webct handout on personal sport autobiography paper details Try to avoid overuse of personal and object pronouns (it, they); make sure tenses agree; use of I in this paper is OK, but be sparing Do us both a favor, use spell check and grammar check!
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Students will explore a cultural sport production (sport/game/human movement) of a nation
linked to the students’ personal ethnicities and histories. Students will develop: 1) overview of
national history, 2) overview the rules of the sport/game and its historical importance, 3) overview of
the cultural importance of the sport, 4) overview expressions of cultural values in sport/game/human
movement, 5) explore how this cultural product has influenced their personal/familial sport
experiences and sport identities, and 6) its relation to and impact on US sport/games/human
movement
the time period of your sport life your narrative will cover: 19th century (OR WHATEVER CENTURY)
the sports you will discuss: martial arts
the theories you will use: Interactionist theory, critical theory
the country where this sport was developed: China
why you chose it: China is my hometown and Wu-Shu was one of the well-known sports in China.
1 academic ref you will Use: https://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/kungfu/history.htm (Links to
an external site.)Links to an external site.
PAPER STRUCTURE
1. Introduction (1/2-1 pg)






Optional – cite an interesting quote
Intro sentences to topic and paper
Statement of purpose (what you will write about and discuss do in the paper)
Goals of paper
Definition of terms if applicable (Stress, racism, sexism, ageism, etc…whichever terms you
will be using in your paper and fit into the experiences you are discussing in the paper
Layout structure and organization of paper information
2. Overview the Nation (1/2 – 1 pg)

Brief history, overview of larger cultural values and sport history
3. Overview the Sport (1/2 – 1 pg)

Rules, history, organizations
4. Expressions of Cultural Values (1 page)



Describe and analyze the sport (this could be a specific situation, or many situations related
to identities: race, sexual orientation, ageism, disability, ethnicity, occupational, religion,
and/or class)
Sociocultural influences
Relate to journal articles, which discuss/relate/contradict in some fashion, the general nature
the sport experience(s)
5. Relationship to Personal Cultural Background (1 pg)




Describe the situation(s) or experience(s) – yet focus on larger issues and context – less playby-play
Explore values expressed in that sport and your family, person, and sporting choices
How the values of that sport have affected you
Compare and contrast your experiences and understandings of sport with research, class
text, larger popular cultural occurrences
6. Summary/Conclusion (1 pg)





Summarize the main content of paper
Wrap up main themes of paper
Suggest possible intervention(s) and/or social actions
re-Reference any journal materials
Final thoughts and looking forward
Critical Sport Autobiography Cultural Sport Narrative Paper Outline













4 – 6 pages of text (around 1400 words), NOT including title and reference pages
Reference min. of 5 journal, peer-reviewed articles – the more the better (max of 1 can be
used from class reader)
See webct and class reader for examples of peer review journal articles and how to cite
10 or 12 pt. font, APA style, black ink, times new roman font style, white paper, indent new
paragraphs, use paragraph breaks
APA is written in past tense whenever possible (e.g. The purpose of this paper was ….The
goal of this paper was…)
Need to have in-text citations for any material noted on the reference page
Double space lines of text
Inside the paper – main section titles are good for organization (e.g. section title…Personal
Sport Journey: Navigating Bi-culturalism in Youth Sport)
Brief, clear, and concise writing; write with academic, formal voice
No more than 3 direct referenced quotes in paper if possible
Read and follow in detail the paper guidelines; see grading rubric for specifics; see webct
handout on personal sport autobiography paper details
Try to avoid overuse of personal and object pronouns (it, they); make sure tenses agree; use
of I in this paper is OK, but be sparing
Do us both a favor, use spell check and grammar check!
1
Theories of Society & Sport
2
Social Theories
♣ Theories are general views on how the world works, in a sense ideologies
♣ Theories involve a combination of
• Description – what to, how to
• Reflection – what is important
• Analysis – causes, connections
♣ Theories have practical implication because they help us make choices
• In a sense ideologies but ….
3
Personal vs. Sociological Theories
♣Social theories are like ideologies but
• Personal theories are ideologies
♣Different
• Not because not biased
• All theories are biased
• Must presume things about society
• Different because explicit
• Makes bias explicit
• Exposes to criticism (by design)
4
Six (5?) Major Social Theories
♣ Identified in Text






5
Functionalist theory
Conflict theory
Interactionist theory
Critical theories
Feminist theories
Figurational theory
Functionalist Theory
♣Society is an organized system of interrelated parts
♣Sports are studied in terms of their contributions to the system
♣Research “focuses on positive outcomes for individuals and society”
[text]
• But also how sports can be disfuntional
• Aspects of deviant behaviour
6
Functionalist Theory (cont.)
♣ Popular because assumes that shared values and agreement are the basis for
social order
♣ Those with power and influence often prefer it because it emphasizes stability
and equilibrium in society
♣ Media coverage often are based on the same assumptions as functionalist
theory
7
Using Functionalist Theory
1
♣How sports promote social integration




8
9
Development and growth of organized sports
Sport participation and individual development
Combat deviance though:
Elite programs as rôle models for the young
Weaknesses of Functionalist Theory
♣Overstates the positive consequences of sport in society
♣Assumes that all social groups benefit equally from sports
♣”Does not recognize that sports are social constructions that privilege
or disadvantage some people more than others” [text]
Weaknesses of Functionalist Theory?
♣Assumes all groups benefit equally?
• In the overall picture
• What’s good for ‘society’ must be good for all its members
• Argues that inequalities are good for society
♣”Does not recognize that sports are social constructions”?
• No, just that society constructs
• Not individuals, groups
10
Conflict [Marxist] Theory
♣Society is determined by economic relations
• Class relations
• Exploitation
♣Sports promote capitalism
♣Research: how does sport perpetuate capitalism?
11
Conflict Theory (cont.)
♣Those with power dislike because argues that power is source of
problems in society
♣Many people dislike because it argues that the social order is the
problem
♣Seldom used in sports discourse because it portrays sport as part of
the problem, not solution
12
Using Conflict Theory
♣Focus on class inequality and how it distorts sports
♣Tries to show how athletes and spectators are exploited by capitalists
• Alienation of athletes and spectators
♣Argues that sports not for profit can benefit people
13
Weaknesses of Conflict Theory
♣Assumes that all social life is “economically determined”
♣Ignores the importance of gender, race & ethnicity, age, & other
factors in social life
2
♣Ignores the possibility that sport might empower people
♣Can produce functionalist arguments
14
[Symbolic] Interactionist Theory
♣Society is created through social interaction
♣Sports are studied through the meanings, symbols, people create in
social interactions
♣Research on how people experience sports, how identities are created
15
Interactionist Theory (cont.)
♣Uses “interpretive research methods”




16
Social processes involved in becoming, being, and unbecoming an athlete
How people create, negotiate, identities as athletes
The meanings, symbols, people give to sports
The characteristics of sport subcultures
Using Interactionist Theory
♣Change sports by changing the meanings we attach to sports
♣Trying to shape the meanings of events in sports
♣Question identity formation processes that involve the normalization
of pain, injury, & substance use in sports
17
Weaknesses of Interactionist Theory
♣Does not explain how meaning, identity, and interaction are connected
with social structures and materials conditions in society
♣Ignores issues of power and power relations in society and how they
impact sport, sport participation, and sport experiences
18
Critical Theories
♣Society involves cultural production, power relations, & ideological
struggles
♣Sports are social constructions that change as power relations change
and as narratives and discourses change
♣Research focuses the meaning and organizations of sports, and on
sports as sites for cultural transformation
19
Critical Theories (cont.)
♣ Assume that sports are more than reflections of society/capitalism, study
• Struggles over the organization & meaning of sports
• How dominant narratives, images are used to construct and give meaning to sports
• How marginalized voices and perspectives are erased from the discourse of sports in
society
• How dominant narratives, images, and power relations can be disrupted to promote
progressive changes
20
Using Critical Theories
♣Use sports to challenge and transform exploitive and oppressive
practices
3
♣Increase diversity in sport
♣Challenge the dominant discourses, ideology, in sports
♣Challenge those in power in sports and society
• Speak for the marginalized
21
Weaknesses of Critical Theories
♣No clear guidelines for identifying and assessing forms of resistance
and strategies for producing transformation
♣No unified strategies for dealing with social problems, conflicts, and
injustice
• Difficult to translate into practice
• Difficult to translate into plain English
22
Feminist Theories
♣Social life is pervasively gendered
• Patriarchy
♣Sports are gendered activities based on masculine values and
experiences
♣Research how sports reproduce patriachy through physicality,
sexuality, and the body
23
Feminist Theories (cont.)
♣Feminist theorists study
• How sports are involved in the production of ideas about masculinity and
femininity
• How women are (mis)represented in media coverage of sports
• Strategies used by women to resist or challenge dominant gender ideology
• The patriarchal structures of sports and sport organizations
24
Using Feminist Theories
♣Challenge aspects of sports that privilege men over women
♣Expose and transform sexism and homophobia in sports
♣Use sports as sites to empower women and promote forms of sport
that reflect the interests of women
• Speak for women
25
Weaknesses of Feminist Theories
♣Lack clear guidelines for assessing forms of resistance and the value
of ideas and actions in producing social transformation
♣Assume that there is a unified “women’s interest”
• Many women argue that it is not their interest
26
Figurational Theory
♣Society consists of patterns of interdependencies, figurations, among
individuals and groups
♣Development of society/sports linked to the civilizing process
4
• External, violent, restraints are replaced by internal, self-regulatory, ones
• Sports become less violent, brutal, and more organized
27
Figurational Theory (cont.)
♣Sports are important because
• Development, the civilizing process exemplified in sport
– Decrease in violence
– Centralization or organization
• Are exciting activities that relieve boredom and control violence
28
Figurational Theory (cont.)
♣Research focuses on developing knowledge that presents valid
pictures of reality
♣Those who use it are concerned with
• How social figurations emerge and change
• How modern sports emerged and became important in certain societies
• The complexities of global sports and local and national identities
29
Using Figurational Theory
♣Develop knowledge that may:
• Give rise to strategies for controlling expressions of violence, exploitation,
and the abuse of power
• Increase access to sport participation among those who have lacked power
through history
30
Weaknesses of Figurational Theory
♣Gives too little attention to problems & struggles that affect day-to-day
lives
♣Understates the immediate personal consequences of oppressive
power relations
♣Has not given enough attention to the experiences of women and the
gender inequities that affect their lives
31
What Theories are Best?
♣ Theories are tools that help us ask questions, collect and analyze information,
and interpret the implications of the analyses
♣ Our choice of theories is influenced by our goals and political agendas
♣ The best theories are those that help us find ways to make the world more
democratic and humane? [text]
5

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