1.On December 26, 2004, a pair of closely related natural disasters killed tens of thousands of people. a. What was the initial cause of the event, not the one that apparently killed most of the people (the general name for the type of disastrous event)? b. Where (location), specifically, did that initial event happen? c. What was the specific kind of that initial event (the variety of the general event noted in part “a”) and the exact nature of it? d. What secondary event (the one that killed most of the people) was caused by the initial event noted above (the general name for that type of event)?
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1. On December 26, 2004, a pair of closely related natural disasters killed tens of thousands of people.
a. What was the initial cause of the event, not the one that apparently killed most of the people (the general
name for the type of disastrous event)?
b. Where (location), specifically, did that initial event happen?
c. What was the specific kind of that initial event (the variety of the general event noted in part “a”) and the
exact nature of it?
d. What secondary event (the one that killed most of the people) was caused by the initial event noted above
(the general name for that type of event)?
e. Explain exactly how the initial event was related to the secondary event.
2. Along the San Andreas Fault in California, how many magnitude 7 earthquakes would it take to relieve the
same stress in the rocks as one magnitude 8 earthquake?
3. Why are tsunami waves in the open ocean limited in height?
4. About how high are the largest earthquake-caused tsunami waves in bays?
5. In December, 2004, a giant earthquake struck southeastern Asia.
a. Exactly where was that earthquake?
b. Why was it there? Explain clearly. (Tectonic Environment)
c. What was the magnitude (give the number) of that earthquake?
d. What type of fault movement (normal, reverse or transform) caused the earthquake?
e. What was the nature of the boundary marked by that fault?
f. How long (rupture length) was the break along that fault?
6. Which is the more dangerous location for a tsunami hazard, a straight stretch of open coast, a rocky point, or
a narrow bay? Or what is the most hazardous area along a coast? Why?
7. What are the approximate tsunami-wave velocities over the continental shelf or near-shore?
8. What are the approximate wavelengths of tsunami waves?
9. What is the approximate time between consecutive tsunami wave crests?
10. On low-lying coastal flats near Anchorage, Alaska, the foundations of buildings dropped below sea level
during the giant 1964 earthquake. Decades later, their foundations are again above sea level.
a. What type of tectonic boundary caused the earthquake, and what plate motions are involved?
b. Explain what tectonic forces led to the ground sinking and later rising, and why? Be specific.
11. Why do ships in the open ocean not notice passage of a tsunami wave?
12. How dangerous (or not dangerous) are tsunami in the open ocean, and why?
13. How are tsunami waves in the Atlantic Ocean likely to be generated?
14. What is often the first indication of the arrival of a tsunami at the coast?
15. If you are at the beach and feel a large earthquake, what should you do, and when should you do it?
16. There have not been any very large earthquakes on the subduction zone of the coast of Washington and Oregon
in hundreds of years. Explain why not, and what are the implications based on records of past events.
17. Explain how volcanoes can lead to tsunamis.
18. What are some measurements which can be taken to minimize damages from tsunami waves?
19. Explain the two levels of the Pacific Tsunami Warning System and explain how they work.

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