1 or 2 pages for responding the questions in total.
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Action Items
1. Write a one to two page paper, addressing the following:
1. Describe in your own words the concept of market power.
2. Provide an example of a firm exercising its market power Referring to
your example above, answer the following questions:
o
o
What are the sources of the firm’s market power?
Can they be sustained over a short run / long run?
3. Answer the question below in your conclusion:
o
Why is it hard for a firm to maintain market power over a Long
Run?
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
Copyright © 2012 Pearson
Prentice
Hall.
All rights
reserved.
Copyright
© 2012
Pearson
Prentice
Hall. All rights reserved.
6-1
CHAPTER
Perfect Competition
6
In the award-winning 2004 movie Sideways, the main character raved
about pinot noir wine. This review increased the demand for pinot noir
wine grown in the Willamette Valley in Oregon.
PREPARED BY
Brock Williams
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
APPLYING THE CONCEPTS
1
What is the break-even price?
The Break-Even Price for Switchgrass, a Feedstock for Biofuel
2
How do entry costs affect the number of firms in a market?
Wireless Women in Pakistan
3
How do producers respond to an increase in price?
Wolfram Miners Obey the Law of Supply
4
Why is the market supply curve positively sloped?
The Worldwide Supply of Copper
5
How do supply restrictions affect the boom-bust housing cycle?
Planning Controls and Housing Cycles in Britain
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-3
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
Perfect Competition
• perfectly competitive market
A market with many sellers and
buyers of a homogeneous product
and no barriers to entry.
• price taker
A buyer or seller that takes the
market price as given.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-4
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
Perfect Competition
Here are the five features of a perfectly competitive
market:
1 There are many sellers.
2 There are many buyers.
3 The product is homogeneous.
4 There are no barriers to market entry.
5 Both buyers and sellers are price takers.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-5
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
PREVIEW OF THE FOUR
MARKET STRUCTURES
6.1
• firm-specific demand curve
A curve showing the relationship
between the price charged by a
specific firm and the quantity the firm
can sell.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-6
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
6.1
PREVIEW OF THE FOUR
MARKET STRUCTURES (cont’d)
 FIGURE 6.1
Monopoly versus Perfect Competition
In Panel A, the demand curve facing a monopolist is the market demand curve.
In Panel B, a perfectly competitive firm takes the market price as given, so the firm-specific
demand curve is horizontal. The firm can sell all it wants at the market price, but would sell
nothing if it charged a higher price.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-7
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
6.1
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
PREVIEW OF THE FOUR
MARKET STRUCTURES (cont’d)
6-8
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
6.2
THE FIRM’S SHORT-RUN OUTPUT DECISION
The Total Approach: Computing Total Revenue
and Total Cost
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-9
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
6.2
THE FIRM’S SHORT-RUN OUTPUT DECISION
(cont’d)
The Total Approach: Computing Total Revenue and Total
Cost
► FIGURE 6.2
Using the Total Approach
to Choose an Output
Level
Economic profit is shown by
the vertical distance between
the total-revenue curve and
the total-cost curve.
To maximize profit, the firm
chooses the quantity of
output that generates the
largest vertical difference
between the two curves.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-10
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
THE FIRM’S SHORT-RUN OUTPUT DECISION
(cont’d)
6.2
The Marginal Approach
MARGINAL PRINCIPLE
Increase the level of an activity as long as its marginal benefit exceeds its
marginal cost. Choose the level at which the marginal benefit equals the
marginal cost.
• marginal revenue
The change in total revenue from
selling one more unit of output.
marginal revenue = price
To maximize profit, produce the quantity where price = marginal cost
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-11
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
6.2
THE FIRM’S SHORT-RUN OUTPUT DECISION
(cont’d)
The Marginal Approach
 FIGURE 6.3
The Marginal Approach to Picking an Output Level
A perfectly competitive firm
takes the market price as
given, so the marginal
benefit, or marginal revenue,
equals the price.
Using the marginal principle,
the typical firm will maximize
profit at point a, where the
$12 market price equals the
marginal cost.
Economic profit equals the
difference between the price
and the average cost ($4.125
= $12 – $7.875) times the
quantity produced (eight
shirts per minute), or $33 per
minute.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-12
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
THE FIRM’S SHORT-RUN OUTPUT DECISION
(cont’d)
6.2
Economic Profit and the Break-Even Price
economic profit = (price − average cost) × quantity
produced
• break-even price
The price at which economic profit is
zero; price equals average total cost.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.
6-13
CHAPTER 6
Perfect Competition
6.3
THE FIRM’S SHUT-DOWN DECISION
Total Revenue, Variable Cost, and the Shut-Down Decision
operate if total revenue > variable cost
shut down if total revenue < variable cost Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-14 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.3 THE FIRM’S SHUT-DOWN DECISION (cont’d) Total Revenue, Variable Cost, and the Shut-Down Decision ► FIGURE 6.4 The Shut-Down Decision and the Shut-Down Price When the price is $4, marginal revenue equals marginal cost at four shirts (point a). At this quantity, average cost is $7.50, so the firm loses $3.50 on each shirt, for a total loss of $14. Total revenue is $16 and the variable cost is only $13, so the firm is better off operating at a loss rather than shutting down and losing its fixed cost of $17. The shutdown price, shown by the minimum point of the AVC curve, is $3.00. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-15 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.3 THE FIRM’S SHUT-DOWN DECISION (cont’d) The Shut-Down Price •operate if price > average variable cost
•shut down if price < average variable cost • shut-down price The price at which the firm is indifferent between operating and shutting down; equal to the minimum average variable cost. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-16 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.3 THE FIRM’S SHUT-DOWN DECISION (cont’d) Fixed Costs and Sunk Costs • sunk cost A cost that a firm has already paid or committed to pay, so it cannot be recovered. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-17 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition APPLICATION 1 THE BREAK-EVEN PRICE FOR SWITCHGRASS, A FEEDSTOCK FOR BIOFUEL APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #1: What is the break-even price? To illustrate the notions of break-even price, let’s look at these prices for the typical farmer. Comparing switchgrass to alfalfa: • The implicit rent on land to grow alfalfa $120 per acre. • If the switchgrass yield is 3 tons per acre, the opportunity cost is $40 per ton. • If the explicit cost of a ton of switchgrass is $36 • The breakeven price is $76 = $36 + $40 • To get some farmers to grow switchgrass instead of alfalfa the price must be at least $56 per ton and to get the most fertile land switched the price must be $95 per ton, or $76 on average. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-18 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.4 SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVES The Firm’s Short-Run Supply Curve • short-run supply curve A curve showing the relationship between the market price of a product and the quantity of output supplied by a firm in the short run. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-19 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.4 SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVES (cont’d) The Firm’s Short-Run Supply Curve  FIGURE 6.5 Short-Run Supply Curves In Panel A, the firm’s short-run supply curve is the part of the marginal-cost curve above the shut-down price. In Panel B, there are 100 firms in the market, so the market supply at a given price is 100 times the quantity supplied by the typical firm. At a price of $7, each firm supplies 6 shirts per minute (point b), so the market supply is 600 shirts per minute (point f) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-20 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.4 SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVES (cont’d) The Short-Run Market Supply Curve • short-run market supply curve A curve showing the relationship between market price and the quantity supplied in the short run. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-21 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.4 SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVES (cont’d) Market Equilibrium  FIGURE 6.6 Market Equilibrium In Panel A, the market demand curve intersects the short-run market supply curve at a price of $7. In Panel B, given the market price of $7, the typical firm satisfies the marginal principle at point b, producing six shirts per minute. The $7 price equals the average cost at the equilibrium quantity, so economic profit is zero, and no other firms will enter the market. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-22 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition APPLICATION 2 WIRELESS WOMEN IN PAKISTAN APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #2: How do entry costs affect the number of firms in a market? In Pakistan, phone service is now provided by thousands of “wireless women,” entrepreneurs who invest $310 in wireless phone equipment (transceiver, battery, charger), a signboard, a calculator, and a stopwatch. • They sell phone service to their neighbors, charging by the minute and second. • On average, their net income is about $2 per day, about three times the average per capita income in Pakistan. The market for phone service has the features of a perfectly competitive market, with easy entry, a standardized good, and a large enough number of suppliers that each takes the market price as given. In contrast, to enter the phone business in the United States, your initial investment would be millions, or perhaps billions, of dollars, so the market for phone service is not perfectly competitive. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-23 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition THE LONG-RUN SUPPLY CURVE FOR AN INCREASING-COST INDUSTRY 6.5 • long-run market supply curve A curve showing the relationship between the market price and quantity supplied in the long run. • increasing-cost industry An industry in which the average cost of production increases as the total output of the industry increases; the long-run supply curve is positively sloped. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-24 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.5 THE LONG-RUN SUPPLY CURVE FOR AN INCREASING-COST INDUSTRY (cont’d) The average cost of production increases as the total output increases, for two reasons: • Increasing input price. As an industry grows, it competes with other industries for limited amounts of various inputs, and this competition drives up the prices of these inputs. • Less productive inputs. A small industry will use only the most productive inputs, but as the industry grows, firms may be forced to use less productive inputs. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-25 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.5 THE LONG-RUN SUPPLY CURVE FOR AN INCREASING-COST INDUSTRY (cont’d) Production Cost and Industry Size Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-26 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.5 THE LONG-RUN SUPPLY CURVE FOR AN INCREASING-COST INDUSTRY (cont’d) Drawing the Long-Run Market Supply Curve  FIGURE 6.7 Long-Run Market Supply Curve The long-run market supply curve shows the relationship between the price and quantity supplied in the long run, when firms can enter or leave the industry. At each point on the supply curve, the market price equals the long-run average cost of production. Because this is an increasing-cost industry, the long-run market supply curve is positively sloped. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-27 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.5 THE LONG-RUN SUPPLY CURVE FOR AN INCREASING-COST INDUSTRY (cont’d) Examples of Increasing-Cost Industries: Sugar and Apartments •The sugar industry is an example of an increasing-cost industry. As the price increases, sugar production becomes profitable in areas where production costs are higher, and as these areas enter the world market, the quantity of sugar supplied increases. •The market for apartments is another example of an increasing-cost industry with a positively sloped supply curve. Most communities use zoning laws to restrict the amount of land available for apartments. As the industry expands by building more apartments, firms compete fiercely for the small amount of land zoned for apartments. Housing firms bid up the price of land, increasing the cost of producing apartments. Producers can cover these higher production costs only by charging higher rents to tenants. In other words, the supply curve for apartments is positively sloped because land prices increase with the total output of the industry, pulling up average cost and necessitating a higher price for firms to make zero economic profit. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-28 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition APPLICATION 3 WOLFRAM MINERS OBEY THE LAW OF SUPPLY APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #3: How do producers respond to an increase in price? •Consider the market for wolfram during World War II. Wolfram is an ore of tungsten, an alloy required to make heat-resistant steel for armor plate and armor-piercing shells. During World War II, the United States and its European allies bought up all the wolfram produced in Spain, thus denying the Axis powers—Germany and Italy—this vital military input. However, the wolfram-buying program was very costly to the Allied powers for two reasons: • The Allied powers had to outbid the Axis powers for the wolfram, so the price increased from $1,144 per ton to $20,000 per ton. • Spanish firms responded to the higher prices by supplying more wolfram. Workers poured into the Galatia area in Spain, where they used simple tools to gather wolfram from the widely scattered outcroppings of ore. This market entry increased the quantity of wolfram supplied tenfold. Because wolfram miners obeyed the law of supply, the Allied powers were forced to buy a huge amount of wolfram, much more than they had expected. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-29 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition APPLICATION 4 THE WORLDWIDE SUPPLY OF COPPER APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #4: Why is the market supply curve positively sloped? •The mining industry is another example of an increasing-cost industry. When the price of copper is relatively low, only low-cost mines operate. As the price of copper increases, mines with progressively higher extraction costs become profitable and are brought on line. •Between 2001 and 2006, the price of copper increased from $1,300 to $7,000 per ton, and the industry moved upward along the long-run supply curve as high-cost mines started or resumed production. •A recent geological survey of Afghanistan found a significant deposit of copper at Aynak, just south of Kabul beneath an old al-Qaeda training camp. •With a copper price of $7,000, it would be profitable to spend the $1 billion necessary to develop the site. •But if the price of copper were to fall back to the level observed in 2001, the Aynak mine would be a losing proposition. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-30 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.6 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN DEMAND The Short-Run Response to an Increase in Demand  FIGURE 6.8 Short-Run Effects of an Increase in Demand An increase in demand for shirts increases the market price to $12, causing the typical firm to produce eight shirts instead of six. Price exceeds the average total cost at the eight-shirt quantity, so economic profit is positive. Firms will enter the profitable market. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-31 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.6 SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN EFFECTS OF CHANGES IN DEMAND (cont’d) The Long-Run Response to an Increase in Demand  FIGURE 6.9 Short-Run and Long-Run Effects of an Increase in Demand The short-run supply curve is steeper than the long-run supply curve because of diminishing returns in the short run. In the short run, an increase in demand increases the price from $7 (point a) to $12 (point b). In the long run, firms can enter the industry and build more production facilities, so the price eventually drops to $10 (point c). The large upward jump in price after the increase in demand is followed by a downward slide to the new long-run equilibrium price. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-32 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition APPLICATION 5 PLANNING CONTROLS AND HOUSING CYCLES IN BRITAIN APPLYING THE CONCEPTS #5: How do supply restrictions affect the boom-bust housing cycle? •Restrictions on residential development make housing suppliers less responsive to changes in demand. As a result, the housing market is more prone to cycles of rising and falling prices. •In a market with development controls, an increase in demand causes a large increase in price because the supply side of the market is hobbled in its response. The stricter the controls, the steeper the supply curve, and the larger the short-run increase in price. •If the restrictions are eventually relaxed to accommodate higher demand, the supply side of the market responds, leading to an increase in quantity and a drop in prices. •In Britain, development restrictions are more severe than they are in the United States, and this partly explains why Britain has more frequent housing booms and busts. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-33 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition LONG-RUN SUPPLY FOR A CONSTANT-COST INDUSTRY 6.7 • constant-cost industry An industry in which the average cost of production is constant; the long-run supply curve is horizontal. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-34 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.7 LONG-RUN SUPPLY FOR A CONSTANT-COST INDUSTRY (cont’d) Long-Run Supply Curve for a Constant-Cost Industry  FIGURE 6.10 Long-Run Supply Curve for a Constant-Cost Industry In a constant-cost industry, input prices do not change as the industry grows. Therefore, the average production cost is constant and the long-run supply curve is horizontal. For the candle industry, the cost per candle is constant at $0.05, so the supply curve is horizontal at $0.05 per candle. Copyright © 2012 Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. 6-35 CHAPTER 6 Perfect Competition 6.7 LONG-RUN SUPPLY FOR A CONSTANT-COST INDUSTRY (cont’d) Hurricane Andrew and the Price of Ice ► FIGURE 6.11 Hurricane Andrew and the Price of Ice A hurricane increases the demand for ice, shifting the demand curve to the right. In the short run, the supply curve is relatively steep, so the price rises by a large amount—from $1 to $5. In the long run, firms enter the industry, pulling the price back ... Purchase answer to see full attachment