35 multiple choice question, choose the correct answer, if you not sure about some question, put a question mark before the question and choose one you think is right.
finalexamreview.pdf

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FINAL EXAM REVIEW
VEN 3
WINTER 2019
FORMAT OF FINAL EXAM
• 60 Multiple Choice Questions
– Focus MAINLY on material since the Midterm
– A FEW questions from earlier material
– REVIEW PRACTICE QUESTIONS (ONLINE)
• 10 “Bonus” Questions
– You won’t lose points for wrong answers
– You can ONLY gain points for right answers
• BRING ONE SCANTRON 2000!
MORE ON FINAL EXAM
• Your final course grade consists of:
– 2 Quizzes, 15% each
– Midterm exam, 30%
– FINAL EXAM, 40%
• QUESTIONS? Contact us!
– Email
– Office hours
• Please complete online course evaluations
also!
These Review Slides…
• Contain a REVIEW of all lectures since last quiz, plus some
important concepts from earlier in the class.
• Each section begins with a slide of REVIEW QUESTIONS that
you should study if you want to pass the final exam.
• For each section, the answers to the study questions are on
the following slides.
• A SAMPLE EXAM (multiple choice) will also be posted on
CANVAS for you to study.
SENSORY EVALUATION OF WINE
REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. What are Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Aromas
and how/when do they develop?
2. What is the difference between Aroma and Bouquet?
3. What is the Marangoni Effect?
4. What are the five basic tastes?
5. How does aging affect wine sensory characteristics?
6. What is a “blind tasting”? A “vertical tasting”?
7. At what temperature range should a white wine be
served? A sparkling wine? A red wine?
Aroma vs. Bouquet
• Wine aromas are classified in 3 major categories:
– Primary aromas: known as varietal aromas, come
from the type of grape used
– Secondary aromas: Known as vinous aromas: develop
during the pre-fermentation and fermentation
process.
– Tertiary aromas: developed during the post
fermentation process, in the wine barrel, and, later
while the wine is being aged in a bottle for years.
– A specialist refers to wine aromas for the first and
second type, but refers to tertiary aromas as bouquet
6
Legs – Marangoni Effect
• Alcohol evaporates more quickly than water
• Alcohol crawls up glass as it evaporates,
• Since there is a film of water on top, it is
pushed up in an arch.
• Eventually gravity wins, the water’s surface
tension is broken, and down runs the water,
in tears.
“TASTE”
• What your tongue does
• 5 basic tastes:
Sweet
Sour
Bitter
Salty
[Umami]
Bartoshuk, L.M. (1993). The biological basis of food perception and acceptance.
Food Quality and Preference, 4, 21-32
WINE AGING
• Color
– Whites: yellow è amber
– Reds: purple è orange-brown
• Loss of Color with long aging
• Aroma
– Fruit declines
– ‘Bottle bouquet’ develops (cooked artichoke)
• Taste
– Bitterness declines
BLIND TASTING
• We all have expectations
– Regions
– Wineries
– Prices
• Conceal identity for objective
evaluation
VERTICAL TASTING
• Different Years of Same Wine




1945
1961
1995
1996
13 Year Vertical of Qupé Bien Nacido Hillside Estate Syrah
(photo credit: Michael Wilsker pixillusion.com)
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CALIFORNIA WINES
REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. What US region/state produces the most wine?
2. In acreage, what is California’s largest grape crop?
3. In yield, what type of grape does California produce
most?
4. What are California’s two main winegrape growing
regions?
a. Which of these regions has higher production?
b. Which of these regions has higher unit value?
5. Which California grapes bring the highest prices?
History of Wine in California
QUESTIONS:
1. When and by whom was wine production
introduced to California?
ØWhat grape variety was first introduced here?
2. Why was there a “wine boom” in the 1880s?
3. What is Zinfandel and when was it introduced
here?
4. How did prohibition (1919-1934) affect
California’s wine industry?
5. What wine types experienced a “boom” during
the 1970s? During the 1990s? Why?
WINES OF THE UNITED STATES
QUESTIONS:
1. In general, how are the wine traditions in the New
World different from those of the “Old World”
(Europe)?
2. What are the top four wine-producing states in the
US?
3. What two criteria are used to determine wine taxation
in the US?
4. What information is required to be on a US wine
label?
5. How do you interpret the information on wine labels?
• RIESLING
• French Varietals
• Italian Varietals
French-American
Hybrids
Legal Classifications
►Alcohol Level
– 9-14%: table wine, >14 to 24 %: dessert or fortified wine
►Effervescence (CO2 level)
– >1 atmosphere carbon dioxide: sparkling wine
►Quality Categories
– Appellation of Origin (Grapes)
– Table Wine
►Grape Variety
– Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Zinfandel
Taxation Factors
►Federal Excise Tax + California State Tax
(per gallon)
ØBASED ON TWO FACTORS: Alcohol and CO2
– Table Wine: 9-14% alcohol (v/v), $1.07 + 20c
– Fortified Wine: 14-21% alcohol, $1.57 + 20c
– Fortified Wine over 21% alcohol, $3.15 +20c
– Sparkling Wine: $3.40 +30c
– State Taxes for table wine vary greatly: CA: 20c
to KY: $3.18
Beer ~58.09c + 20c (31 gal for $18)
All values are per gallon
What Has To Be On A US Wine Label
(By Law)?
• Surgeon General’s Health Warnings = required
• Contains Sulfites = required IF exceeds 10 ppm SO2
(whether added or natural)
• Alcohol Concentration = percentage or range (e.g.
“Table Wine” means 7-14% alcohol); when specified
it must be accurate within guidelines
– (within 1% if >14%; within 1.5% if <14%) • Geographic Origin = not mandatory, but if specified it must be accurate within guidelines (AVA, etc.) Wines of the Southern Hemisphere QUESTIONS: 1. What grapes were first introduced to South America by Europeans? 2. What South American country has a climate and topography most similar to California? 3. What is the major winegrowing region in Argentina, and what varietal wine is this country noted for? 4. Where are most of Australia’s winegrowing regions located? 5. What varietal wines is New Zealand noted for? 6. Where are most of South Africa’s winegrowing regions located? 7. What is Shiraz? What is Pinotage? * *Cinsaut DANUBE, LEVANT, CAUCASUS, CHINA QUESTIONS: 1. Why is there winemaking and viticulture along the Danube river. When did it begin? 2. What are the current trends in wine production in the Danube countries? 3. What are today’s trends in winemaking (varieties, markets) in today’s Danubian countries and also in Greece. 4. What happened to winemaking in the former Soviet Republics in the 90’s and how are they coping? 5. Social, economic and other reasons for China’s rise in wine production and consumption? 6. China’s difficult growing conditions in some regions and the efforts to place China wine production among the best producers. !"#$%&'()*"#*+$#,'&&#(*.&),$'#*./'01$*&'$ -02&,$(*&-0#3*,4$*50'6$'* 706&#*.61"'$*89"6$): 3&+!*4"* .%,-*'1 $'+*#"* '+2*,"* 3('0"* 0%&-*'"* !"#"$%&#%'()*&+,-)#.()/*,%0()'"!(' !"#$%&' ! ! ()*+, &-./)0122#)345-+64-302!70.+38 9)3:;2!-3/4+.-2)3:;?62 ):;-642@)4384/A-; >/0! B2C+3/-4/-62+DD3)C-;2=)32()*+,122E+/02
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WHAT HAPPENED TO GREECE ?
…one of the cradles of winemaking and viticulture
• Greece today is the 14th wine producer in the world
• Wine production has increased in recent years (+ 21%
between 2011 and 2014)
• Wine classification mirrors the European classification
• Many ancient local grape varieties such as Agiorghitiko
(reds) or Assyrtiko (white)
• Greece’s economy is turned towards tourism, and interest in
developing grape production and improving grape quality is
high!
THE NEAR EAST
It’s part of wine’s ancient history
• The Near East is one of the earliest regions where
grapes have been grown and wine made. Several
countries continue making wine.
• In ISRAEL, the wine industry is modern,
sophisticated and growing.
• In LEBANON, wine is still produced for the Christian
population and quality wine exported for Lebanese
living abroad.
• In TURKEY, the wine industry has been facing
difficulties linked to a new political climate.
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China is now having a “wine boom”
• China now has more acres of vineyards than France. It
has the second largest vineyard acreage in the world,
after Spain.
• It is now the world’s 5th largest wine consuming country
and the 8th largest producer
• 130 million 9-liter cases produced annually (according
to VinExpo/IWSR)
• Some of France’s best producers, like Chateau LafiteRothschild, have invested there
• Mainly red wines (91%), but some good whites also
• Cabernet Sauvignon very popular
https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-06-26/top-chinese-wineshave-gone-from-bad-to-good-will-they-become-great-
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PORTUGAL AND GERMANY
QUESTIONS:
1. What is Port wine? How does it compare to
Sherry?
2. What is Vinho Verde?
3. What is the single most important criterion on
which German wine categories are based?
4. What are the different categories of German
Pradikat wines, and what do they mean?
5. What are German ‘Selection’ or ‘Classic’ wines?
ITALY AND SPAIN
QUESTIONS:
1. Compare and contrast the Italian and French AOC
systems.
2. What grape(s) are used to make Barolo and
Barbaresco wines?
3. What grape(s) are used to make Traditional Chianti?
4. What are the major winegrape varieties grown in
Spain?
5. What classification names, based on aging, are used
for Spanish red wines?
6. What are Fino, Oloroso and Amontillado and how do
they differ from one another?
The DOC System
Based on the French AOC system
DOC’s (ITALY)
AOC’s (FRANCE)
Lines drawn
around regions
making typical
wines
Lines drawn
around regions
making good
wines
Italian Appellation System
DOCG
Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita
(“Controlled and guaranteed”)
Reserved for wines of particular distinction
Has to pass a blind taste test
Over 30 DOCG’s
Italian Appellation System is
NOT Hierarchical
Italian
DOC’s
DOC
DOC
DOC
DOCG
French
AOC’s
Piedmont: Barolo & Barbaresco
• DOCG
– Red wines
– Tannic wines (Barolo more than Barbaresco), aged in
wood
• 100% Nebbiolo
Tuscany: Chianti
• DOCG
– Red wine
– Traditional Blend:
• 75-90% Sangiovese
• 5-10% white grapes
• Up to 10% other red
• Codification of a traditional recipe
http://vinofil.no/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Isole-e-Olena1.jpg
SPAIN
} #1 in vineyard area worldwide (1.113 million Ha) but low
average production
} 36.1 million hectoliters (# 2 in the world after Italy)
} Home of the world’s most abundant grape?
– Airén – about 30% of vineyard area in Spain
Problems:
– Lack of water
– Diseased vines
– Low density
Spanish Appellations
• DO
Denominacion de Origen (69 DO’s)
• DOCa Denominacion de Origen Calificada (aka DOCQ in Catalan)
– Only 3 so far
• Rioja in the Rioja Region
• Priorat in the Catalonia Region
• Ribera del Duero in Castille and Leon region
• DO de Pago Denominacion de Origen de Pago
– Reserved for single estates; since 2003
– In 2009 there were 7 estates designated
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The French AOC System
Appellation d’ Origine Contrôlée
“Controlled appellation of origin”
Place name +
“appellation contrôlée”
on label

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NOT an AOC Wine

The Words “Appellation Contrôlée” are Missing

FRENCH WINES
QUESTIONS:
1. Compare and Contrast BURGUNDY and
BORDEAUX wines.
2. In Burgundy appellations, what is meant by
“Premier Cru” and “Grand Cru”?
3. What is Beaujolais Nouveau?
4. In Bordeaux appellations, what is meant by
“Chateau”?
5. In Bordeaux appellations, what is meant by
“Premiers Grands Crus Classés”?

BURGUNDY

Burgundy (Bourgogne)
• Small vineyards, multiple owners

– Inheritance laws
– Wines from same vineyard can be very
different

GoNOMAD Travel: Where Would You Like to Go?

BURGUNDY WINES
• 100% varietal wines
– Pinot noir
– Chardonnay
• High alcohol (~13%)
– Often chaptalized
(sugar addition)
• Relatively LOW COLOR
• LOW TANNIN

(sugar

DRC = Domaine Romanée-Conti
(AOC wine)

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BURGUNDY APPELLATIONS
• Premier Cru (“first growth”)
– Village name + vineyard name

• Grand Cru (“great growth”)
– Highest quality
– Vineyard name alone
– ONLY 33 in Burgundy

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Bordeaux Climate
• Milder temperatures than Burgundy
because of marine influence
• Some cool wet summers so chaptalize
sometimes

http://www.touringvines.com

Vineyard Ownership
• Vineyards much larger than Burgundy
• Different inheritance customs because of
British history
– 1152 to 1450’s

Bordeaux Varieties
• Usually varietal blends (Some exceptions)
• Reds:
Cabernet Sauvignon
Merlot
Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Malbec
(the “Bordeaux 5”)

• Whites: Sauvignon blanc
Semillon

Red Wine Style
• Compared to Burgundy reds, BORDEAUX reds
have:
è More color
è More tannin
è Less alcohol

Wine Enthusiasts Magazine’s
UnReserved

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What is a Château?



A winery (“castle”)
Main identifier of Bordeaux wine
BUT not officially part of the AOC system
Chateau name is usually much larger than
the AOC name on the label

Premiers Grands Crus Classés
• Château Latour (Pauillac)
• Château Lafite-Rothschild (Pauillac)
– About 70% cab, 20% merlot, 10% cab franc

• Château Margaux (Margaux)
– About 75% cab, 25% merlot

• Château Haut-Brion (Pessac-Leognan part of Graves;
not in Médoc)
– does not use Bordeaux bottle; also sells white wine

• Château Mouton (now Mouton Rothschild), originally
listed as 2nd cru; ‘promoted’ …
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