1. After reading Plato’s Allegory of the Cave and watching Seth Godin’s TED talk “This is Broken,” critically reflect upon the intersection between these two sources as it relates to Organizational Development and Change Management. For example, how do people handle change and new information? Resources:Plato’s Allegory of the Cave”This is broken” TED video by Seth Godinthis post should be 8-10 full sentences. You have to give me this post by tomorrow.2. Chapter 16 summary. (see attached document)You have to write one page summary of chapter 16. Bulletin, definitions etc.after that you have do powerpoint presentation for chapter 16. be creative. add videos , animations etc. no plagiarism please.
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9e
Organization Development & Change
Thomas G. Cummings
University of Southern California
Christopher G. Worley
University of Southern California
Pepperdine University
Australia • Brazil • Canada • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • UnitedKingdom • UnitedStates
Organization Development & Change,
9th Edition
Thomas G. Cummings &
Christopher G. Worley
Vice President of Editorial, Business:
Jack W. Calhoun
© 2009, 2005 South-Western, a part of Cengage Learning
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08
Dedication
To Chailin and Debbie, the loves of our lives
brief contents
Preface
CHAPTER 1
General Introduction to Organization
Development
PART 1
Overview of Organization Development
CHAPTER 2
The Nature of Planned Change
CHAPTER 3
The Organization Development
Practitioner
PART 2
The Process of Organization Development
1
22
CHAPTER 14
Restructuring Organizations
315
CHAPTER 15
Employee Involvement
350
CHAPTER 16
Work Design
376
PART 5
Human Resource Management
Interventions
419
46
CHAPTER 17
Performance Management
420
74
CHAPTER 18
Developing Talent
451
CHAPTER 19
Managing Workforce Diversity
and Wellness
473
23
CHAPTER 4
Entering and Contracting
75
CHAPTER 5
Diagnosing Organizations
87
CHAPTER 6
Diagnosing Groups and Jobs
107
PART 6
Strategic Change Interventions
504
CHAPTER 20
Transformational Change
505
CHAPTER 7
Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic
Information
121
CHAPTER 21
Continuous Change
535
CHAPTER 8
Feeding Back Diagnostic Information
139
CHAPTER 22
Transorganizational Change
561
CHAPTER 9
Designing Interventions
151
CHAPTER 10
Leading and Managing Change
163
CHAPTER 11
Evaluating and Institutionalizing
Organization Development Interventions
189
PART 3
Human Process Interventions
252
CHAPTER 12
Interpersonal and Group Process
Approaches
253
CHAPTER 13
Organization Process Approaches
276
PART 4
Technostructural Interventions
iv
xv
314
PART 7
Special Applications of Organization
Development
CHAPTER 23
Organization Development in Global
Settings
613
614
CHAPTER 24
Organization Development in Nonindustrial
Settings: Health Care, School Systems, the
Public Sector, and Family-Owned Businesses 651
CHAPTER 25
Future Directions in Organization
Development
693
Glossary
746
Name Index
756
Subject Index
760
contents
Preface
xv
CHAPTER 1
General Introduction to Organization Development
1
Organization Development Defined
1
The Growth and Relevance of Organization Development
4
A Short History of Organization Development
Laboratory Training Background
Action Research and Survey Feedback Background
Normative Background
Productivity and Quality-of-Work-Life Background
Strategic Change Background
6
6
8
9
11
12
Evolution in Organization Development
12
Overview of The Book
14
Summary
17
Notes
17
PART 1
Overview of OrganizationDevelopment
CHAPTER 2
The Nature of Planned Change
22
23
Theories of Planned Change
Lewin’s Change Model
Action Research Model
The Positive Model
Comparisons of Change Models
23
23
24
27
29
General Model of Planned Change
Entering and Contracting
Diagnosing
Planning and Implementing Change
Evaluating and Institutionalizing Change
29
29
30
30
31
Different Types of Planned Change
Magnitude of Change
31
31
Application 2-1 Planned Change at the San Diego County
Regional Airport Authority
Degree of Organization
32
35
Application 2-2 Planned Change in an Underorganized System
Domestic vs. International Settings
37
40
Critique of Planned Change
Conceptualization of Planned Change
Practice of Planned Change
41
41
42
Summary
43
Notes
44
v
vi
Contents
CHAPTER 3
The Organization Development Practitioner
46
Who is the Organization Development Practitioner?
46
Competencies of an Effective Organization Development Practitioner
48
The Professional Organization Development Practitioner
Role of Organization Development Professionals
53
53
Application 3-1 Personal Views of the Internal and External
Consulting Positions
Careers of Organization Development Professionals
56
59
Professional Values
60
Professional Ethics
Ethical Guidelines
Ethical Dilemmas
61
61
62
Application 3-2 Kindred Todd and the Ethics of OD
65
Summary
66
Notes
67
Appendix
70
PART 2
The Process of Organization Development
CHAPTER 4
Entering and Contracting
74
75
Entering into an OD Relationship
Clarifying the Organizational Issue
Determining the Relevant Client
Selecting an OD Practitioner
76
76
76
77
Developing a Contract
Mutual Expectations
79
79
Application 4-1 Entering Alegent Health
Time and Resources
Ground Rules
80
81
81
Interpersonal Process Issues in Entering and Contracting
81
Application 4-2 Contracting with Alegent Health
82
Summary
86
Notes
86
CHAPTER 5
Diagnosing Organizations
87
What is Diagnosis?
87
The Need for Diagnostic Models
88
Open Systems Model
Organizations as Open Systems
Diagnosing Organizational Systems
89
89
92
Organization-Level Diagnosis
Organization Environments and Inputs
Design Components
Outputs
Alignment
Analysis
94
94
96
99
99
99
Application 5-1 Steinway’s Strategic Orientation
100
Summary
105
Notes
105
vii
Contents
CHAPTER 6
Diagnosing Groups and Jobs
107
Group-Level Diagnosis
Inputs
Design Components
Outputs
Fits
Analysis
107
107
108
109
110
110
Application 6-1 Top-Management Team at Ortiv Glass Corporation
111
Individual-Level Diagnosis
Inputs
Design Components
Fits
Analysis
113
113
114
115
115
Application 6-2 Job Design at Pepperdine University
116
Summary
119
Notes
120
CHAPTER 7
Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic Information
121
The Diagnostic Relationship
121
Methods for Collecting Data
Questionnaires
Interviews
Observations
Unobtrusive Measures
123
124
126
127
128
Sampling
129
Techniques for Analyzing Data
Qualitative Tools
130
130
Application 7-1 Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic Data at Alegent Health
Quantitative Tools
132
133
Summary
137
Notes
138
CHAPTER 8
Feeding Back Diagnostic Information
Determining the Content of the Feedback
139
139
Characteristics of the Feedback Process
141
Survey Feedback
What Are the Steps?
142
142
Application 8-1 Training OD Practitioners in Data Feedback
Survey Feedback and Organizational Dependencies
143
145
Application 8-2 Operations Review and Survey Feedback at
Prudential Real Estate Affiliates
Limitations of Survey Feedback
Results of Survey Feedback
146
147
148
Summary
149
Notes
149
CHAPTER 9
Designing Interventions
151
What are Effective Interventions?
151
How to Design Effective Interventions
Contingencies Related to the Change Situation
Contingencies Related to the Target of Change
152
152
154
viii
Contents
Overview of Interventions
Human Process Interventions
156
156
Summary
161
Notes
162
CHAPTER 10
Leading and Managing Change
163
Overview of Change Activities
163
Motivating Change
Creating Readiness for Change
Overcoming Resistance to Change
165
165
166
Application 10-1 Motivating Change in the Sexual Violence Prevention
Unit of Minnesota’s Health Department
168
Creating a Vision
Describing the Core Ideology
Constructing the Envisioned Future
169
170
171
Developing Political Support
171
Application 10-2 Creating a Vision at Premier
Assessing Change Agent Power
Identifying Key Stakeholders
Influencing Stakeholders
172
174
175
175
Managing the Transition
176
Application 10-3 Developing Political Support for the Strategic
Planning Project in the Sexual Violence Prevention Unit
Activity Planning
Commitment Planning
Change-Management Structures
Learning Processes
177
178
179
179
179
Sustaining Momentum
180
Application 10-4 Transition Management in the HP–Compaq Acquisition
Providing Resources for Change
Building a Support System for Change Agents
Developing New Competencies and Skills
Reinforcing New Behaviors
Staying the Course
181
182
183
183
183
184
Summary
184
Notes
185
Application 10-5 Sustaining Transformational Change at
the Veterans Health Administration
187
CHAPTER 11
Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization
Development Interventions
189
Evaluating Organization Development Interventions
Implementation and Evaluation Feedback
Measurement
Research Design
189
189
192
197
Institutionalizing Organizational Changes
Institutionalization Framework
200
200
Application 11-1 Evaluating Change at Alegent Health
Organization Characteristics
Intervention Characteristics
Institutionalization Processes
Indicators of Institutionalization
201
203
204
205
206
Application 11-2 Institutionalizing Structural Change at Hewlett-Packard
208
Summary
210
ix
Contents
Notes
210
Selected Cases
Kenworth Motors
Peppercorn Dining
Sunflower Incorporated
Initiating Change in the Manufacturing and Distribution Division of PolyProd
Evaluating the Change Agent Program at Siemens Nixdorf (A)
212
212
217
239
241
247
PART 3
Human Process Interventions
CHAPTER 12
Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches
252
253
Process Consultation
Group Process
Basic Process Interventions
Results of Process Consultation
253
254
255
257
Application 12-1 Process Consultation at Action Company
258
Third-Party Interventions
An Episodic Model of Conflict
Facilitating the Conflict Resolution Process
259
260
261
Application 12-2 Conflict Management at Balt Healthcare Corporation
262
Team Building
Team-Building Activities
Activities Relevant to One or More Individuals
Activities Oriented to the Group’s Operation and Behavior
Activities Affecting the Group’s Relationship with the Rest
of the Organization
263
264
267
268
Application 12-3 Building the Executive Team at Caesars Tahoe
The Manager’s Role in Team Building
The Results of Team Building
269
270
271
Summary
273
Notes
273
CHAPTER 13
Organization Process Approaches
268
276
Organization Confrontation Meeting
Application Stages
Results of Confrontation Meetings
276
276
277
Application 13-1 A Work-Out Meeting at General
Electric Medical Systems Business
278
Intergroup Relations Interventions
Microcosm Groups
Application Stages
Resolving Intergroup Conflict
279
279
280
281
Large-Group Interventions
284
Application 13-2 Improving Intergroup Relationships
in Johnson & Johnson’s Drug Evaluation Department
Application Stages
285
287
Application 13-3 Using the Decision Accelerator to Generate
Innovative Strategies in Alegent’s Women’s and Children’s Service Line
Results of Large-Group Interventions
290
294
Summary
295
Notes
295
Selected Cases
Lincoln Hospital: Third-Party Intervention
Ben & Jerry’s (A): Team Development Intervention
297
297
304
x
Contents
PART 4
Technostructural Interventions
314
CHAPTER 14
Restructuring Organizations
315
Structural Design
The Functional Structure
The Divisional Structure
The Matrix Structure
The Process Structure
The Customer-Centric Structure
315
316
318
319
322
324
Application 14-1 Healthways’ Process Structure
The Network Structure
325
328
Downsizing
331
Application 14-2 Amazon.com’s Network Structure
Application Stages
Results of Downsizing
332
334
337
Application 14-3 Strategic Downsizing at Agilent Technologies
338
Reengineering
Application Stages
340
341
Application 14-4 Honeywell IAC’s Totalplant™ Reengineering Process
Results from Reengineering
344
346
Summary
346
Notes
347
CHAPTER 15
Employee Involvement
350
Employee Involvement: What Is It?
A Working Definition of Employee Involvement
The Diffusion of Employee Involvement Practices
How Employee Involvement Affects Productivity
350
351
352
352
Employee Involvement Applications
Parallel Structures
354
354
Application 15-1 Using the AI Summit to Build
Union–Management Relations at Roadway Express
Total Quality Management
356
359
Application 15-2 Six-Sigma Success Story at GE Financial
High-Involvement Organizations
365
367
Application 15-3 Building a High-Involvement Organization
at Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
370
Summary
373
Notes
373
CHAPTER 16
Work Design
376
The Engineering Approach
376
The Motivational Approach
The Core Dimensions of Jobs
Individual Differences
Application Stages
Barriers to Job Enrichment
377
378
379
380
382
Application 16-1 Enriching Jobs at the Hartford’s Employee
Relations Consulting Services Group
Results of Job Enrichment
383
385
The Sociotechnical Systems Approach
Conceptual Background
Self-Managed Work Teams
386
387
388
xi
Contents
Application Stages
Results of Self-Managed Teams
391
393
Application 16-2 Moving to Self-Managed Teams at ABB
394
Designing Work for Technical and Personal Needs
Technical Factors
Personal-Need Factors
Meeting Both Technical and Personal Needs
397
398
399
400
Summary
401
Notes
402
Selected Cases
City of Carlsbad, California: Restructuring the Public Works Department (A)
C&S Wholesale Grocers: Self-Managed Teams
405
405
408
PART 5
Human Resource Management Interventions
CHAPTER 17
Performance Management
419
420
A Model of Performance Management
421
Goal Setting
Characteristics of Goal Setting
Establishing Challenging Goals
Clarifying Goal Measurement
Application Stages
Management by Objectives
Effects of Goal Setting and MBO
422
422
423
423
424
424
426
Performance Appraisal
426
Application 17-1 The Goal-Setting Process at Siebel Systems
The Performance Appraisal Process
Application Stages
Effects of Performance Appraisal
427
428
430
431
Reward Systems
431
Application 17-2 Adapting the Appraisal Process at Capital
One Financial
Structural and Motivational Features of Reward Systems
Skill- and Knowledge-Based Pay Systems
Performance-Based Pay Systems
Gain-Sharing Systems
Promotion Systems
Reward-System Process Issues
432
434
437
438
440
442
443
Application 17-3 Revising the Reward Systemat Lands’ End
444
Summary
447
Notes
447
CHAPTER 18
Developing Talent
451
Coaching and Mentoring
What Are the Goals?
Application Stages
The Results of Coaching and Mentoring
451
452
452
453
Career Planning and Development Interventions
What Are the Goals?
Application Stages
The Results of Career Planning and Development
453
454
455
463
Management And Leadership Development Interventions
463
Application 18-1 PepsiCo’s Career Planning and Development Framework
What Are the Goals?
Application Stages
464
466
466
xii
Contents
Application 18-2 Leading Your Business at Microsoft Corporation
The Results of Development Interventions
468
469
Summary
469
Notes
470
CHAPTER 19
Managing Workforce Diversityand Wellness
473
Workforce Diversity Interventions
What Are the Goals?
Application Stages
The Results for Diversity Interventions
473
473
475
478
Employee Stress and Wellness Interventions
What Are the Goals?
479
479
Application 19-1 Embracing Employee Diversity at Baxter Export
Applications Stages
The Results of Stress Management and Wellness Interventions
480
481
486
Summary
487
Notes
488
Application 19-2 Johnson & Johnson’s Health and Wellness Program
490
Selected Cases
Employee Benefits at HealthCo
Sharpe BMW
492
492
497
PART 6
Strategic Change Interventions
CHAPTER 20
Transformational Change
504
505
Characteristics of Transformational Change
Change Is Triggered by Environmental and Internal Disruptions
Change Is Aimed at Competitive Advantage
Change Is Systemic and Revolutionary
Change Demands a New Organizing Paradigm
Change Is Driven by Senior Executives and Line Management
Change Involves Significant Learning
505
506
506
507
508
508
509
Integrated Strategic Change
509
Organization Design
512
Application 20-1 Managing Strategic Change at Microsoft Canada
Conceptual Framework
513
515
Culture Change
518
Application 20-2 Organization Design at Deere & Company
Concept of Organization Culture
Organization Culture and Organization Effectiveness
Diagnosing Organization Culture
The Behavioral Approach
The Competing Values Approach
The Deep Assumptions Approach
519
520
521
523
523
524
525
Summary
528
Notes
529
Application 20-3 Culture Change at IBM
533
CHAPTER 21
Continuous Change
535
Self-Designing Organizations
The Demands of Adaptive Change
Application Stages
535
536
536
Learning Organizations
Conceptual Framework
538
538
xiii
Contents
Application 21-1 Self-Design at American Healthways Corporation
Organization Learning Interventions
Knowledge Management Interventions
Outcomes of OL and KM
539
542
547
550
Application 21-2 Implementing a Knowledge Management
System at Motorola Penang
551
Built-To-Change Organizations
Design Guidelines
Application Stages
553
553
554
Summary
556
Notes
556
Application 21-3 Creating a Built-to-Change Organizationat
Capital One Financial
559
CHAPTER 22
Transorganizational Change
561
Transorganizational Rationale
Mergers and Acquisitions
Application Stages
562
563
564
Strategic Alliance Interventions
Application Stages
568
568
Application 22-1 The Sprint and Nextel Merger: The First Two Years
569
Network Interventions
571
Application 22-2 Building Alliance Relationships
Creating the Network
Managing Network Change
572
574
577
Application 22-3 Fragile and Robust—Network Change
in Toyota Motor Corporation
580
Summary
582
Notes
583
Selected Cases
Fourwinds Marina
Leading Strategic Change at DaVita: The Integration of the Gambro Acquisition
586
586
597
PART 7
Special Applications of Organization Development
CHAPTER 23
Organization Development in Global Settings
613
614
Organization Development Outside the United States
Cultural Context
Economic Development
How Cultural Context and Economic Development Affect OD Practice
615
616
618
619
Application 23-1 Modernizing China’s Human Resource
Development and Training Functions
623
Worldwide Organization Development
Worldwide Strategic Orientations
The International Strategic Orientation
The Global Strategic Orientation
The Multinational Strategic Orientation
625
626
627
629
631
Application 23-2 Implementing the G …
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