*****Gaining intelligence is essential during certain points of a criminal investigation. Open-source information refers to the process through which information must be legally obtained.Choose one step in the intelligence cycle and describe in detail its purpose and how it relates to the other steps.******In responding to your peers, choose an agency and discuss how using the intelligence cycle helps that agency in intelligence gathering and dissemination.*****Peer post one Greetings professor, classmates, ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls of all ages from the wide-open spaces of the great state of Wyoming. A brief history about myself, I served six years in Naval Intelligence, so I do know a thing or two about collecting, analyzing and disseminating information from a variety of sources. My experience was limited, however, since I served at the tail end of the Cold War, so my primary focus at that time were the military activities and capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries. Towards the end of my tour, drug interdiction was becoming more of a focus, but it was still in its “infancy” stage and we didn’t have anywhere near the terrorist threats that we face today. In short, my experience within the intelligence community had very little connection with law enforcement activities. However, there is one thing that is common, that is integral to any intelligence operation whether that’s within law enforcement, the military, CIA or any other organization and that is collection. As defined by the FBI Intelligence Program; Definition and Process of the FBI Intelligence Cycle, collection is defined as “…the gathering of raw information based on the requirements. Activities such as interviews, technical and physical surveillances, human source operations, searches, and liaison relationships results in the collection of intelligence” (Carter, 2004, p. 65). Collection is the first step in the intelligence cycle, which makes it the most crucial step in the entire process. It doesn’t matter if the sources are overt or covert, the information must be collected before it can move through the intelligence cycle. Without collection the other steps, evaluation, collation, analysis, reporting and dissemination, cannot happen. I realize that in my experience I didn’t have Constitutional rights to consider; foreign militaries don’t have Constitutional rights. I also acknowledge that law enforcement agencies are, at times, tied down by constitutional considerations, but none of this changes the fact that before the machinery within the intelligence cycle can function, information must be collected. The collection of intelligence can be likened to putting fuel in your vehicle. Your car can’t run without gas and the intelligence cycle can’t run without collecting information; collection is the fuel that powers the entire intelligence process.References:Carter, L. C., Phd. (November 2004). Law Enforcement Intelligence; A Guide for State, Local and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies. Retrieved from http://snhu-media.snhu.edu/files/course_repository/undergraduate/cj/cj468/le_intelligence.pdfRefer to the Discussion Rubric for directions on completing these discussions.****Peer post 2Hello all,Choose one step in the intelligence cycle and describe in detail its purpose and how it relates to the other steps.The step I have chosen to discuss in the intelligence cycle is collection. It is a very important step in the process. Collection is the assembly of relevant data as outlined by the needs for the collection of data (Carter, 2004). Prior to determining what information is to be captured, a collection plan must be determined by deciding what type of information is required and how it will be collected (UNODC, 2011). The gathering of information is done through the use of “interviews, surveillance, searches, human source operations, and liaison relationships” (Carter, 2004).Within the collection process there are generally three types of sources that the information will be gathered from: 1) Open Source – which is data that is available to the public (Carter, 2004). One key feature of open source data is that there is no need to use legal processes or covert gathering methods to obtain the information (Carter, 2004). There are also a lot of other considerations to acknowledge when using open source information (Carter, 2004, pp. 72 -74). Open source information can be a very reliable and accurate source of information as long as the agency collecting it has the ability to corroborate the data with multiple sources (Carter, 2004). 2) Closed source – sources that are have limited accessibility by the public (UNODC, 2011). This type of source tends to be more accurate in its information as it is part of continuing operations, criminal records, or licensing and other related data (UNODC, 2011). 3)Classified source – this is information that has been collected by covert means and by human and technical assets (UNODC, 2011). Classified information is the most accurate of all information that can be utilized during the collection process, however it can be the most difficult to use because of the restrictions on disseminating it to others (UNODC, 2011). The collection of data should come from all types of sources to increase the reliability of the data collected because multiple sources that lead to the same conclusions have a tendency to be more accurate (UNODC, 2011).Respectfully, ChristopherReferencesCarter, D. L., (2004). Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies.United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2011). Criminal Intelligence Manual for Analysts. Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org/documents/organized-crime/Law…Reply to ThreadTextbook: Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies, Chapters 2 and 3 Article: Directorate of Intelligence: The Intelligence CycleThis article provides an overview of the intelligence cycle. The intelligence cycle consists of steps through which law enforcement agencies collect, process, and disseminate intelligence. This process is important to the analyst and is the basis for this assignment. This resource supports this week’s discussion. Article: FBI: Information TechnologyThis article provides an overview of the Information and Technology Branch of the FBI and explains the branch’s important role in allowing the FBI to execute elaborate missions. It also provides hints and pointers to analysts who are faced with securing sensitive information on computers. This resource supports this week’s discussion. PDF: Criminal Intelligence: Manual for AnalystsThis pamphlet was produced by the United Nations and is the main source for all criminal intelligence analysts. It provides an overview of what intelligence is, explains the intelligence cycle, and offers techniques to help analysts do their jobs. It provides guidelines for criminal information and intelligence that is crucial to an analyst in connecting the dots. This resource supports this week’s discussion.Course IntroductionLaw-enforcement professionals can pursue many career opportunities. One field within the law-enforcement community is the field of intelligence. It is important to understand that intelligence-training schools are very limited and expensive. Most law-enforcement agencies that collect intelligence do not normally commit resources to sending prospective people through intelligence training until the agency has had an opportunity to “test drive” their selectees. Most selectees are highly ranked in the field they have applied for, have shown an interest, and have typically had successes gathering intelligence, at least on a small scale. Most selectees to the intelligence world are placed in intelligence situations to see how they would respond, given a lack of training. The successful candidates are those who find ways to be successful nonetheless. This course is designed to give students a foundation in the intelligence-gathering process while also providing a “head start” in the field.Not all agencies are large and/or equipped with high budgets and hefty resources dedicated to gathering criminal intelligence. For instance, if one were to work for a small underfunded department, a requirement of the job might be to collect intelligence while on patrol. The question then becomes, what does one do with the intelligence that has been collected? Some small agencies dedicate a wall in a secure part of the department building for posting intelligence other officers can use. Many officers, either before work or during a shift, will review the board to see if anything has been posted that may be helpful in catching a criminal that law enforcement is searching for. One case in particular in which this occurred was the murder of Dyke and Karen Rhodes in the small town of Paris, Illinois. The police placed information gathered during shifts on the board within the department building. Six years after the conviction of two local men for the respective murders, a little piece of notebook paper was on this bulletin board with the date and name of a person who did not live in Paris and who had been pulled over and given a ticket. Not being a place known for tourism, the officer on duty felt it odd that this person was driving through, which is why the officer placed the information on the board. The name of the man was later determined; he was a professional hit man out of Dallas, Texas. Without getting into too much detail, it was determined that the two men who were convicted of the crime were not actually the culprits. One piece of intelligence gathered by a 22-year-old rookie police officer was able to overturn a conviction several years after arrests had wrongfully been made (Callahan, 2009).Before Gathering IntelligenceModule One will focus on a basic understanding of what intelligence is and how it is processed. Just as the words “law enforcement” indicate, students must thoroughly know the law before enforcing the law. In the intelligence community, there is a saying that translates to mean you must be intelligent before you can gather intelligence. The meaning of the phrase is clear. One must first know what intelligence is before successfully translating it, before one can prepare it, and before one can use the intelligence for a worthy cause.For instance, think about a time as a student when you heard a lecture, and immediately realized that the lecture did not pertain to you. That is how some new intelligence analysts think. And that is the first type of thinking that must change before achieving success in the intelligence world. Intelligence pertains the analysts at all times. Analysts must have the mindset that the protection of the United States and its resources, here and abroad, are their sole responsibility.Be Open-MindedIn the intelligence field, one will receive information from various sources. Some information will come from the officer on the streets, some from other agencies, and some will come from other countries. Intelligence analysts cannot prejudge the intelligence. For example, one may believe that it is impossible for the French law-enforcement intelligence to have any information on a drug dealer who resides in a small town in the United States. However, prejudging information in this manner has been proven wrong time and time again. Although the link may not be readily apparent, the further down the rabbit hole an analyst goes, the more likely it is that the analyst may notice there just may be a connection. If one prejudges the intelligence, the mind will be closed to possibility, and therefore the dots will never be connected. The United States suffered several attacks because of misconception. Two wellknown attacks were the Japanese attack of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii and the attack on September 11, 2001. In both cases intelligence-gathering agencies were arrogant and prejudged the intelligence. Intelligence indicated that attacks would happen, but the intelligence had been prejudged and the notion of such attacks was discarded. Then it happened. In the attack at Pearl Harbor, U.S. intelligence had connected the dots, and yet the intelligence was ignored. In the case of the 9/11 attacks, intelligence agencies discarded the possibility out of overconfidence or arrogance. Regardless of the reason, the United CJ 468 Module One 3 States was attacked, and the attack could have been avoided. Each piece of intelligence needs to be treated as if it is the key piece needed to complete the puzzle.Do Not Be PresumptiveEverything an analyst receives from the field is considered intelligence. Intelligence will be fragmented. It is up to the students to notice the connection of bits and pieces. Once one begins to notice the connection of pieces fitting together, the dots will begin to connect. More importantly, do not be presumptive. Intelligence needs to fit together because of facts. If the facts are not present, do not fill in the blanks by assuming to know the answer. The job of the intelligence analyst is to be an analyst of facts. It is someone else’s job to make predictions. The facts are put together by the analyst, and in this case, the students act as the analyst/agent and will sway the decision makers into the best course of action. If one adlibs information by assuming to know the answer, it will put people and operations in danger. So remember, only use facts.In Module Two, students will begin to explore the next step in gathering intelligence: what is done with the intelligence that has been assembled. Module Two will also explore the process of fusion centers.ReferenceCallahan, M. (2009). Too politically sensitive. Chicago, IL: Land of Lincoln Press, Inc.