– I attached below ALL the Necessary information-you MUST follow the rubric carefully and check everything that it require in the Rubric.-Find any online sources for the paper, you are free to choose which ones as long as they are relevant to the paper and follow the rubric.1- I attached below my research proposal that talks about the topic that I will be writing about and the style that is expected.2- I attached The rubric below that MUST be followed.3- I attached sources numbered 1-3 which will be used for the 3-4 IN CLASS sources.-Please follow the directions carefully, thank you.







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The Key to Success
Lack of school funding is a key problem many urban schools across this country are
currently facing. According to a recent USA Today report “America’s Richest and Poorest
School Districts,” the authors talk about how most of the public schools’ funding comes from
their district’s property tax. They add that even though schools in poorer neighborhoods do
receive some help from the federal level to make their ends meet, still they are significantly
under funded in comparison to other districts where the per pupil expenditure is over $20,000.
Students who live in poverty, live in poor neighborhoods and districts, which leads their local
schools to have barely the necessary funds to run, yet not able to provide a variety of additional
programs, like those found in other schools.
These lack of funds affect the student’s ability to learn and how successful they are
academically. For instance according to a recent 2015 study by the Department of Education’s
National Center for Educational Statistics, in the Detroit public school district 96 percent of
eighth graders are not proficient in mathematics, and 93 are not proficient in reading (CNS News
2015). In other words, these students are not understanding the material and it is up to us, the
people to try and fix the system that in my opinion is the one failing the students, not the other
way around. In the long run if this issue is not solved then we well begin to see an increase in
levels of poverty as less educated people, get fewer opportunities in life. However, lack of school
funds is not a recent issue, in David B. Tyack’s “The One Best System: A History of American
Urban Education,” he talks about how in the nineteenth century when the urban school system
was being implemented for the first time, many viewed the placement of funds in music or
drawing as unnecessary, leading many schools to cut funding within these fields of study.
Unfortunately some of these preconceived notions towards certain areas of study within
public school still remain to this day. Within some districts some schools are led to when lacking
resources be prone to cut out art and music classes from their curriculum as pointed out by
Donna Copper and Maud Lyon in their recent article on how schools are starving within arts
education. These courses as pointed out by the authors are seen as electives, even though
psychologists have actually talked about how having a well-rounded school curriculum allows
students to explore their creative thinking.
Not only does a lack of school funding in urban areas affect student’s learning ability
through a lack of physical resources such as lack of certain classes or learning materials, but also
by leading their teachers to be overwhelmed, unavailable to pay them the necessary attention.
Teachers in many underfunded schools, tend to many times be forced to take many different
positions within the school, as well as have a larger amount of children in their classroom, which
forces them to experience higher levels of anxiety and unavailable to offer a good quality
education as exposed by Jonathan Kozol in his piece “Confections of Apartheid.” Piece in which
he also mentions how the standardized testing system, has prone many of these underfunded
schools to ignore their lowest achieving students, making such unable to potential continue on
with their education. Even though there are people who argue that charter schools, currently may
aid some of these children who are not receiving a quality education, the truth of the matter is
that these schools are becoming extremely segregated as pointed out by Frankenberg and SiegelHawley in their piece “Choice Without Equity,” leading children to not get a more world-related
educational experience. Charter schools may not offer a solid solution because according to the
authors’ research they not only are prone to segregate by race but also by income, furthering this
disparity that continues to grow between the privileged and the unprivileged.
It is therefore crucial for students living in poverty, most located in urban areas to get
someone to lend them a hand to succeed and hopefully escape the cycle of poverty. That is why I
intend on creating a reality show titled “The Key to Success” where the show’s main mission
will be, “To educate the future of America by providing them with the necessary resources.” My
reality show will address the economic disparities that exist within many urban schools in this
country, and how these inequalities tend to negatively affect the students’ performance.
My program’s main goal is to show people that we can all be successful in life, we just
need the necessary resources in order to succeed. People will be moved by learning the stories
behind some our contestants as well as me motivated to take initiate and push the government for
much needed education reform. I believe that my show will not only help the participants in
question by giving them a one in a life time educational opportunity, but also the audience that
each week tunes in to see the show. The audience will get the opportunity to learn about the
country’s current educational situation, as well as be involved in the topics and presentations the
children are exposed to within the boarding school the TV will create. On this note, I hope my
audience to be people across all demographics, as we all have something to learn from this show.
They will not only find data with regards to where the U.S. current public school system stands,
but also be emerged into interesting topics such Oceanography, which is a topic not talked much
about. I believe that specially school officials, teachers, and students can look at the boarding
school implemented and try to emulate some of the learning techniques implements, as well as
the tips and tricks to studying offered by the TV professors. As a result, both the participants and
hopefully audience members as well will be exposed to ways in which they can increase their
education. In an effort to keep audience members engaged, and to hopefully attract young
viewers, the show will also be providing viewers who call submit a brief application online, the
opportunity to win one out of five $10,000 scholarships.
The reality show will begin by asking students between the ages of thirteen and twenty to
apply to the show, they have to be currently enrolled in a public urban high school. Not only can
they themselves apply, but they can also be nominated by teachers, parents, school counselors, or
other classmates. Second, my production team and I will select twenty participants
(approximately ten girls and ten boys) who we believe possess great moral character and will
move them all to a house, boarding school style, very prestige looking, provide them all with
uniforms, and of course divide them by gender, there would be girls’ house and a boys’ house.
The students will be provided with a plethora of educational resources (e.g. computers, library,
project supplies, etc.) and each week will be taking classes taught by some of the most
recognized professors in the subject in question. We will explore a variety of topics, and provide
them with courses not typically taught in a regular urban public high school (e.g. Oceanography,
African American History, Carpentry, Accounting Principles, Drama, Web Design Courses) all
in an effort to create well rounded individuals. Helping students particularly in science related
topics, area where students in urban settings have been seeing an exponential data decline
according to an article published by Angela Calabrese Barton and Christina Berchini “Becoming
an Insider: Teaching Science in Urban Settings.” The authors point out how schools located in
urban settings most of the time are unable to fund certain projects, which require for instance
materials to create chemical reactions, all crucial to provide students with a hands on educational
experience. Unfortunately many science teacher are left to just teach the outlined course
textbook, which through studies they have analyzed, such trend tends to disengage students,
making them be prone to experience boredom (Barton and Berchini 22).
Such lack of student motivation can be observed in the achievement gap described in
Gloria Ladson-Billing’s “From the Achievement Gap to Education Debt” piece where she points
outs the standardized test scores disparities that exist between students in districts such as
Highland Park, where the per pupil expenditure is nearly half as much as that spent in Chicago’s
public schools (Ladson-Billings 4). Ladson-Billings also makes the connection between the low
test scores and lack there of advanced placement programs and extracurricular activities which
also affect students’ learning experience, decreasing their possibilities of potentially going to
college. That is why each week the students within my reality TV boarding school will not only
take quizzes or tests in each subject, as well as be in charge of creating a one-group project for a
class, the projects will rotate each week, but also be offered a wide range of extracurricular
activities (e.g. swimming, soccer, piano, foreign language) for which they may choose one
activity. At the end of each week, their tests and quizzes scores, their projects scores (for which
all students involved in the project will receive the same grade), as well as their fan’s score
(provided by phone or through social media- fans will vote on a scale of one to ten) will
determine their weekly grade. This grade is really important because at the end of the three
month boarding school program the student with the highest number of points will be given a
$250,000 scholarship to help fund their college education at the college of their choosing and if
money permits, they can even use remaining amount of money for a graduate degree. Second
place will get a $100,000 scholarship, third place will obtain a $50,000 scholarship, and the
remaining contestants will all obtain some sort of prize such as gift cards to certain bookstores,
all in the means of trying to aid them with their future education. The show also intends on
helping urban school communities be more successful not by inspiring to push for much needed
change, but also by providing the winner’s school $70,000 for a new computer lab.
My reality show will through a series of flashbacks revealing the participants’
background history, similar to how it is done in many popular shows in TV today (e.g. American
Idol, The X Factor), where the audience get the opportunity to learn the struggles the participants
had to go through before coming on the show. We will focus each week on a different participant
showing video excerpts of their urban high schools, showing our viewers at home some of the
struggles many of these students have to go through in order to receive an education.
Highlighting their lack of electronic as well as physical resources at their schools, comparing and
contrasting their school’s test averages results to some of the highest ranked high schools in the
nation, showing how results vary drastically.
Once the show is over, the production team and I will keep in touch with the participants
trying to check on how they are doing, seeing if we can aid them in any way possible. The neat
thing about this experience is that participants whether they are first or last place, get the
opportunity to create bonds with people around their same age group, learning about a variety of
topics on the hands of world recognized experts, and will be able to include this experience as
reference for applying to college. At the end the participants would have accomplished a
rigorous, but yet engaging educational summer program, which may open their doors to more
opportunities in the near future. Even though, the production company will have to first see if the
show is successful or not, I intend of having in four to five years after the season in question is
over “Reunions,” where the audience will have to the opportunity to see what the students are
now doing, and learn how this experience changed their life for the good. Therefore, showing
people how these one in a lifetime opportunities, as well as the investment in children’s
education, actually helps to improve their lives. It would also be appealing to see the scholarship
winners and get to know how their lives must have completely changed after going to a poor
urban high school and suddenly in their hands have the monetary resources to follow whatever
career path they choose in the school of their dreams.
In conclusion, my intended reality show “The Key to Success” will offer the audience a
quick look into the U.S.’s current education system, as well as expose how a lack of money in
certain urban districts negatively impacts students’ learning. I hope at the end people understand
the magnitude of this problem and truly realize that it is not the children’s fault, but the way the
current education system structured, which tends to disenfranchise children living in poverty,
many of whom are also part of an racial minority. Many of the students in this country are not
failing because of a lack of interest but more so because of a lack of resources. This reality TV
will open the door to twenty students from different urban high schools across the nation to a
unique one in a lifetime opportunity boarding school, where they will be able to if complete the
program successfully, obtain a $250,000 scholarship. Audiences will learn along with the
students the different school topics the children are being exposed to at the boarding school.
Hopefully people from all ages and demographics, watch the show, however teachers and school
officials most importantly as they are the ones more prone to act on the change we want to see in
the future.
Works Cited:
1. Barton, Angela Calabrese. “Becoming an Insider: Teaching Science in Urban Settings.”
Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. 2013. The College of Education and
Human Ecology, Ohio State University. Web. 09 June 2016.
2. Cooper, Donna & Lyon Maud. “Schools are Starving for arts education.” The Notebook.
Sept. 11 2015. Philadelphia Public Schools. Web. 08 June 2016.
URL: http://thenotebook.org/articles/2015/09/11/schools-are-starving-for-artseducation
3. Frakenberg, Erica & Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve. “Choice Without Equity: Charter School
Segregation and the Need for Civil Rights Standards.” Education Digest. Jan.
2011. Prakken Publications. Web. 09 June 2016.
4. Jeffrey, Terence P. “ Detroit Public Schools: 93% Not Proficient in Reading; 96% Not
Proficient in Math” CNS News. 28 Oct. 2015. Media Research Center. Web. 08
June 2016.
URL: http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/terence-p-jeffrey/detroit-publicschools-93-not-proficient-reading-96-not-proficient
5. Kozol, Jonathan. “The Shame of the Nation: Confections of Apartheid- A Stick and
Carrot Pedagogy for the Children of our Inner City Poor.” Phi Delta Kappan.
Dec. 2005. The H.W. Wilson Company. Web. 09 June 2016.
6. Ladson-Billings, Gloria. “2006 Presidential Address: From The Achievement Gap to the
Education Debt: Understanding Achievement in U.S. Schools.” Educational
Researcher. Oct. 2006. ProQuest Education Journal. Web. 09 June 2016.
7. Sauter, Michael B.; Frohlich, Thomas C.; Stebbins, Sam; & Lomen, Evan. “America’s
richest and poorest school districts.” Money Today. 03 Oct. 2015. USA Today
News. Web. 08 June 2016.
URL: http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/business/2015/10/03/24-7-wall-strichest-poorest-school-districts/73205874/
8. Tyack, David B. The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1974. Print.
A Survey of California Teachers’ Challenges, Experiences,
and Professional Development Needs
Patricia Gándara • Julie Maxwell-Jolly • Anne Driscoll
Listening to Teachers of English Language Learners is the product of collaboration between Policy Analysis for
California Education (PACE), The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning (The Center), and the University of
California Linguistic Minority Research Institute (UC LMRI).
Founded in 1983 as a cooperative venture between the schools of education at UC Berkeley and Stanford
University, PACE is an independent policy research center whose primary aim is to enrich education policy debates with
sound analysis and hard evidence. From issues around pre-schooling and child development, to K-12 school finance,
to higher education outreach, PACE is dedicated to defining issues thoughtfully and assessing the relative effectiveness
of alternative policies and programs. PACE provides analysis and assistance to California policy-makers, education
professionals, and the general public.
The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning is made up of education professionals, scholars, and public
policy experts who care deeply about improving the schooling of California’s children. The Center was founded in
1995 as a public nonprofit organization with the purpose of strengthening the capacity of California’s teachers to deliver
a rigorous, well-rounded curriculum and ensuring the continuing intellectual, ethical and social development of all
children. In addition to a wide variety of policy-oriented studies, the Center annually publishes a comprehensive analysis
of the status of the state’s teaching profession.
The UC Linguistic Minority Research Institute is a multi-campus research unit of the University of California
established in 1984 to pursue “…knowledge applicable to educational policy and practice in the area of language minority
students’ academic achievement and knowledge,” including their access to the University of California and other
institutions of higher education.
Funding for this initiative was graciously provided by:
Clarence E. Heller Charitable Foundation
The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation
Stuart Foundation
Copyright © 2005. The Regents of the University of California. Permission is hereby granted to use this report
for nonprofit teaching, research or public service uses.
The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning
133 Mission Street, Suite 220
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
Listening to Teachers of English Language Learners
A Survey of California Teachers’ Challenges, Experiences, and Professional Development Needs
Patricia Gándara
Julie Maxwell-Jolly
Anne Driscoll
The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning
133 Mission Street, Suite 220
Santa Cruz, CA 95060
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
High Quality and Effective Teaching for English Learners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
The Study Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Teacher Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Effects of Teacher Certification and Professional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Need for Teacher Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
Summary of Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …
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