6 sources obtained through researchProper APA citation format12-point Times New Roman fontDouble-spaced lines3rd person point of view WHAT: Develop an Annotated Bibliography that summarizes and explains how each of 6 sources will aid in development of your upcoming 10+ page Persuasive Essay—Call to Action!Be sure to get your topic approved by your instructor.An annotated bibliography includes a working thesis statement and cites a list of books, articles, and documents. After you write each citation, write a paragraph and describe the relevance, quality, and potential use of the cited source.
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Working Title of Persuasive Essay:
How public health program and comprehensive awareness can help significantly minimize the
number of new people contacting HIV and STDs.
Broad Subject:
Gay people and the highest risk contracting sexual transmitted diseases.
Working Thesis for Persuasive Essay:
Since male to male sexual contact makes up the greatest proportion of those with HIV and STD
infection, public health program and good awareness can help significantly decrease AIDS
transmission and sexually transmitted infection.
Annotated Bibliography
1. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2017). What are HIV and AIDS?
Retrieved from http://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/about-hiv-and-aids/what-are-hivand-aids
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the United States
Governments principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans. HIV.gov
collaborates with departments and agencies across the Federal government to provide
HIV/AIDS-related information to users. Material presented on the HIV.gov website is
considered Federal government information and is in the public domain.
This government information is relevant because it increases knowledge about
HIV and access to HIV services for people most at risk for or living with HIV. HIV is a
chronic disease which people need to avoid. This source will be used to give the readers
the official information about what HIV and AIDS are, how is HIV transmitted, and why
people need to prevent HIV. Also, these useful information will support for the reasons
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why comprehensive sexual education should be taught at schools, and Why people who
have a high risk to contract HIV should practice healthy sexual lifestyle and use
medication to get rid of it.
2. Gilead . (2018). What is TRUVADA for PrEP?
Retrieved from https://www.truvada.com/what-is-truvada/understanding-truvada
Gilead was founded in 1987 in Foster City, California. Since then, Gilead has
become one of the largest biopharmaceutical companies in the world, with a rapidly
expanding product portfolio and a growing pipeline of investigational drugs. Truvada.com
is an official website of a branch of this biopharmaceutical company to provide important
safety information of the medication called TRUVADA.
TRUVADA for PrEP® (pre-exposure prophylaxis) is a prescription medicine that
can help reduce the risk of getting HIV-1 through sex, when taken every day and used
together with safer sex practices. I will use this website to support sufficient information
for one of the best implement solutions for my social issue such as: possible side effects of
Prep, how Prep works, eligible condition of using Prep, etc.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). HIV in the United States: At a glance.
Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html
CDC that shorts for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is one of the main
operation components of the Department of Health and Human Services. As the national
health department, CDC governs critical science and provides essential health information
to prevent our nation against expensive and dangerous health threats.
This article is appropriate to support my persuasive essay because it indicates the
statistic of estimated new HIV infection in the United States by Transmission category in
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2015 which shows that 68% of male to male sexual contact makes up the highest proportion
of those with HIV infection. Besides, this research statistics based on race, ethnicity, age
of those with HIV infection to help government and society come up with appropriate
impletion solutions with specific subjects.
4. Advocates for Youth. (2001). Sexual Education Programs: Definitions & Point-by-Point
Comparison.
Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/publications-a-z/655-sexeducation-programs-definitions-and-point-by-point-comparison
Since Advocates for Youth was founded in 1980, it has served as a courageous
voice and respected leader in the field of adolescent reproductive and sexual health.
Advocates for Youth partners with youth leaders, adult allies, and youth-serving
organizations to advocate for policies and champion programs that regulate youth’s rights
to honest sexual health information; accessible, confidential, and affordable sexual health
services; and the fund resources and necessary chances to create sexual health equity for
young generation.
Comprehensive sexual education should be mandatory to be taught in public
schools to keep children away from sexual violence, discrimination, intentional pregnancy,
sexual transmitted diseases. It also teaches interpersonal and communication skills and
helps youth explore their value, goals, and options. This article is relevant to support for
one of the implement solutions to prevent HIV and STDs which school should be taught
about comprehensive sexual education.
5. Julie Moreau. ( 2018). Trump administration “exacerbating” LGBTQ health care
discrimination, report says.
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Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/trump-administrationexacerbating-lgbtq-health-care-discrimination-report-says-n894151
NBC News Digital is a collection of innovative and powerful news brands (
including NBCNews.com, MSNBC.com, TODAY.com, Nightly
News, Meet
the
Press, Dateline) that deliver compelling, diverse and visually engaging stories on our
platform of choice. Julie Moreau is an assistant professor of Political Science and Sexual
Diversity Studies at University of Toronto, Canada.
This article is appropriate to support for my persuasive essay because it shows the
opposing view of my stance which is government somehow discourage LGBTQ to access
to certain of their rights, especially to health care. For instance, in January 2018,
Department of Health and Human Services announced the creation of a religious freedom
division that would defend health care providers who refused care on the basis of their
religious or moral beliefs, and propose a rule that would that would expand the ability of
insurers and health care providers to deny service on the basis of religious or moral
objections. This article illustrates a particular example to show that it remains the
discrimination based on gender identify and sexual orientation. I would use this source to
clarify the opposing view of my problem which government and health care system are
not really supportive to LGBTQ’s illnesses and diseases. Therefore, I propose the new
regulation and public policy to keep LGBTQ away from discrimination and
underestimation.
6. Human Rights Campaign. (n.d.). A Call to Action: LGBTQ Youth Need Inclusive Sex
Education.
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Retrieve from https://www.hrc.org/resources/a-call-to-action-lgbtq-youth-need-inclusivesex-education
Human Rights Campaign (HRC) visualize a world where LGBTQ people are
embraced as full members of society everywhere. The HRC fund was established in 1981
by Steve Endean who is one of the first LGBTQ political action committee in the United
States. The HRC’s mission is to provide financial support on behalf of the LGBTQ
population to political candidates who have been supporting gender equality and human
rights legislation.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (LGBTQ) youth need and deserve to learn
in settings that are consistent to their experiences and provide them the necessary education
to be safe and healthy. Most of LGBTQ youth are being in academic environment where
their teachers and textbooks inappropriately address their identities, behaviors and
experiences. This teaching method potentially influences more damaging, than in sex
education. I will use this article to clearly point out what school should teach student about
comprehensive sexual education. Also, This source will support for my stance which
education play a crucial role in fight discrimination, HIV, and STDs. The more they learn,
the better interaction they react.
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6
APA Annotated Bibliography
Assignment
Final Draft Setup:





6 sources obtained through research
Proper APA citation format
12-point Times New Roman font
Double-spaced lines
3rd person point of view
WHAT: Develop an Annotated Bibliography that summarizes and explains how
each of 6 sources will aid in development of your upcoming 10+ page
Persuasive Essay—Call to Action! Be sure to get your topic approved by your
instructor. An annotated bibliography includes a working thesis statement and
cites a list of books, articles, and documents. After you write each citation,
write a paragraph and describe the relevance, quality, and potential use of the
cited source.
For your annotated bibliography, ensure the final draft
1) Includes (at the top of the annotated bibliography)
a. a potential title for your upcoming Persuasive Essay;
b. the overarching subject to be discussed in your Persuasive Essay;
c. a working thesis statement for your Persuasive Essay.
2) Offers 6 sources, paying attention to content reliability and author
credibility.
3) Summarizes the content of each source.
4) Discusses how each source will aid your essay’s development.
5) Cites each source in perfect APA Reference page format.
6) Uses 12-point Times New Roman font.
REMEMBER to SUBMIT your draft(s) to your WRITING SPECIALIST in your Online
Writing LAB . Your OWL WRITING SPECIALIST will help you develop a polished,
well-crafted final version of your work.
WHY: An annotated bibliography guides the reading, evaluating, and sorting of
sources planned for use in a research paper. It also gives practice using APA
citation format, and demonstrates quality of research undertaken, while
strengthening a writer’s ability to analyze and evaluate main ideas, supporting
evidence, and conclusions in a variety of texts.
HOW: BRAINSTORM: Think of an issue about which you feel passionate! This is
also the issue for your Persuasive Essay. When you brainstorm, consider how you
think people should act, feel and think regarding this issue.
THESIS – use the exercise below to craft your working thesis statement. A
THESIS, above all, HAS TO TAKE A STAND and PRESENT a definite point of view.
In scholarly writing, this is PRESENTING AN ARGUMENT, not just a FACT or a
SUBJECT. To figure out your argument, answer this question:
Who are the people who believe the opposite of what I believe? ________________
______________________________________________________________________
Use this link to access an OWL worksheet for thesis statement development: Thesis
Worksheet.
A MODEL THESIS STATEMENT:
Working Thesis for Persuasive Essay:
In this location, give the reader a working thesis statement for your Persuasive
Essay.
Example: Since over one million plastic straws pollute our oceans, and plastics
pollution wreaks havoc to the food chain of marine life, people should refuse to
accept straws from businesses that serves drinks with plastic straws, and ask the
business staff and their friends to refuse to use straws as well.
Your Turn: “Since
______________________________________________________________,
_________________________________________________________________.”
DEVELOPMENT: ChangingMinds.org is an excellent website for further support on
teaching questioning and critical thinking. In particular, check out:
http://changingminds.org/disciplines/argument/argument.htm.
Develop a clearer idea of WHAT you need to research: Write 5 questions that begin
with the words “How”, “Why”, or “What” regarding the issue you want to write
about.
Question 1:
___________________________________________________________________?
Question 2:
___________________________________________________________________?
Question 3:
___________________________________________________________________?
Question 4:
___________________________________________________________________?
Question 5:
___________________________________________________________________?
Format for Annotated Bibliography
Your Name
Course Name/Number
Instructor’s Name
Date Assignment Due
Working Title of Persuasive Essay:
In this location, briefly state the working title of your upcoming Persuasive
Essay.
Broad Subject:
In this location, briefly state the overarching subject area of your Persuasive
Essay.
Working Thesis for Persuasive Essay:
In this location, give the reader a working thesis statement for your
Persuasive Essay:
Annotated Bibliography
In this location, use APA to properly cite one source that will be used in your
Persuasive Essay.
In this location, after properly citing the source above, write a brief
paragraph (approximately 150 words, double-spaced lines) that: 1)
describes how the source connects to your essay; e.g., it supports your
thesis; 2) evaluate the quality of source information; 3) show examples of
the ways you will use the source to attain the goals of the essay.
(Do this 6 times for each of your 6 sources)
Academic Format, Citation and Integrity Resources:
Please view this link to learn how to format in-text citations or make a references
page:
https://guides.lib.unc.edu/citing-information/apa-intext
Please view this link to learn what plagiarism is and how to avoid it:
http://subjectguides.lib.neu.edu/plagiarism
CRITICAL INFORMATION ABOUT HOW TO CONDUCT RESEARCH
WHAT IS RESEARCH?
When you search for information and ideas beyond the scope of common
knowledge, you conduct research. For example, we know the sky is blue, so you
do not need to research the color of the sky. You may, however, need to research
why the sky appears blue.
WHY DO WE RESEARCH?
1. For information. We may need to look up facts, statistics, or timelines of
events. We may also want to learn more in-depth information about a subject so
we can make informed choices and hold informed opinions.
2. For support. When we have an idea or opinion, we may need to show
precedent exists for our idea (for example, city officials implemented our idea for
keeping parks clean and our idea worked), or that another person, an expert in
the field, agrees with us (for example, if we think smoking is bad for our health,
we may need to show someone who doubts us that many doctors and scientists
agree, in their expert opinion, smoking harms our health).
3. To engage in the academic dialogue. As scholars, we must consider issues
and ideas from all sides. Much of the research we do in college helps us consider
alternate points of view and make connections between and amongst competing
sources. For example, you may be undecided about whether spanking children is
a good disciplinary technique. Therefore, you would research different
perspectives on spanking children and discipline. Then, after you complete your
research, if you conclude spanking does not work and harms children, you should
not ignore the sources that disagree with you. Include opposing points of view in
your essay, examine these points of view, analyze them, and then synthesize or
rebut them with other research you have done to argue your point of view. Make
sure you understand the connections between different ideas and opinions.
HOW DO WE RESEARCH?
First, always approach research as a good critical thinker. Be open minded and
skeptical. Always change your mind when you get new, better
information. College-level research differs from high school research because you
search for different information to analyze and synthesize.
You will want to look for different kinds of sources. Types of sources commonly
used in college writing include:
1. Academic Journal articles. Academic journal articles are articles written by
experts and peer-reviewed by other experts. They are specific, academic, and
some of the best in-depth information available.
2. Discipline-specific electronic sources. Discipline here means “academic
discipline” or field –such as physics, women’s studies, English, French literature or
psychology. A discipline-specific electronic source is a website that only has
information about that subject or discipline. So, for example, Wiki pages or Yahoo
Answers are not discipline-specific because they contain information about a lot
of different subjects from many people who are not always experts. However,
you can use the website for the National Domestic Violence Hotline for
information about domestic violence, or the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun
Violence website about gun laws (as would the National Rifle Association
website).
3. Books. You can find books in “the stacks” –the third and fourth floor of the
library have books that can be found by using the call numbers associated with
them.
4. Reference works. A reference work covers basic information about a
subject. These books include encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases and specific
works like the Diagnostic Statistical Manual used by psychology professionals.
5. Periodicals. A periodical, i.e., a newspaper or magazine, appears periodically
–every day or month or year. You can find articles from periodicals online or in
physical newspapers and magazines. Consider using: Newsweek, Time, Atlantic
Monthly, Slate, Salon, New York Times, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, or
the Los Angeles Times.
6. Consider using films, interviews, archival documents, podcasts and other
sources.
When you find a source, make sure you save the information about it so you can
easily find it again. Keep a record of every source that might have anything to do
with your subject by writing down the title and author.
HOW DO WE EVALUATE RESEARCH?
You must evaluate sources for credibility and bias. To check the credibility of a
source, find out the qualifications of the author. A neuroscientist’s opinion of
how synapses in the brain work is more credible than my little sister’s opinion,
while my little sister probably knows more about shoes than the neuroscientist
does. Then, evaluate your source for bias. Biased sources only present one point
of view or attempt to convince readers of something particular, and so don’t
always show the whole picture. Check for bias. Read the “about” page of a
website or read through the article or book and ask yourself what objections
someone who disagrees with the author might have. It the author doesn’t
acknowledge those objections, the source might be biased. For example, if you
research scientific weight loss strategies, the Hydroxycut.com website is a biased
place to get information because they are trying to sell readers their product.
.com means commercial, and that indicates the owner of the website tries to sell
products or services. If you use any .com as a source, you need to show readers
its bias and use it as an example of marketing, rather than as a credible source.
Introduction
People’s awareness of environmental protection has gradually increased and their
dependence on automobiles has decreased. Subway has become an indispensable part
of human modern daily life and plays an essential role in urban life. Of course, the
subway is also very important for Boston, which is the primary public transport for
people living in Boston. However, the Boston subway was built in the nineteenth
century and has been running for more than a hundred years, and it has many
disadvantages. I believe it needs to be improved according to the shortcomings that
have arisen at present. Therefore, I plan to do a lot of research on the potential safety
hazards in Boston subway facilities, the potential causes of these hazards and the
potential solutions to these hazards, to determine that Boston subway needs to be
improved. Then I plan to propose feasible solutions, such as updating subway vehicles.
Statement of the Problem
Boston’s obsolete subway vehicle facilities and poor infrastructure at subway
stations pose many potential safety hazards. I need to fully investigate the current status
of Boston subway vehicles and facilities, such as the history of use, the frequency of
maintenance of facilities and so on, to determine that the Boston subway …
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